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Selection: with tag alpine-region [55 articles] 


Post-fire spread of alien plant species in a mixed broad-leaved forest of the Insubric region

Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, Vol. 207, No. 1. (January 2012), pp. 19-29,


How do tree species regenerate and which ecological conditions are required after forest fire in the Insubric region of the Alps? Are indigenous stand-forming tree species resistant over the invasion of alien plant species after such a disturbance? We addressed these questions in a case study in the Swiss canton of Ticino. In April 2006, a surface fire with severe intensity burnt a forest area of 55 ha on a south-facing slope (400–800 m.a.s.l.). The dominant trees in the investigated area ...


Managing alpine forests in a changing climate

In Management Strategies to Adapt Alpine Space Forests to Climate Change Risks (28 August 2013), pp. 369-383,
edited by Gillian Cerbu


[Excerpt: Introduction] There is mounting evidence that Alpine forest ecosystems will not be able to fully absorb the changes in site factors associated with climate change, such as higher temperatures, more intensive drought stress and associated biotic impacts since these changes exceed the adaptive capacity of the trees. The projected changes in temperature by 2.2 to 5.1 K from 1980 to 1999 to 2080 to 2099, for the A1B scenario in southern Europe [1], correspond to an altitudinal shift of 300 to ...

Visual summary


Evidence of divergent selection for drought and cold tolerance at landscape and local scales in Abies alba Mill. in the French Mediterranean Alps

Molecular Ecology, Vol. 25, No. 3. (February 2016), pp. 776-794,


Understanding local adaptation in forest trees is currently a key research and societal priority. Geographically and ecologically marginal populations provide ideal case studies, because environmental stress along with reduced gene flow can facilitate the establishment of locally adapted populations. We sampled European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) trees in the French Mediterranean Alps, along the margin of its distribution range, from pairs of high- and low-elevation plots on four different mountains situated along a 170-km east–west transect. The analysis of 267 ...


Spatial and seasonal variations of air temperature lapse rates in Alpine regions

Journal of Climate, Vol. 16, No. 7. (1 April 2003), pp. 1032-1046,<1032:sasvoa>;2


Air temperature decrease with altitude was estimated by simple linear regression for several regions around northern Italy for minimum, maximum, and mean monthly temperatures. The comparison of the gradients with previous works revealed the absence of a lapse rate seasonal pattern in most earlier studies. Such inconsistencies in other analyses were demonstrated to be largely due to insufficient climatic stations in each area, and incomplete temporal coverage. These problems were solved here by using 269 stations in northern Italy, 205 in ...


Complex responses to global change at alpine treeline

Physical Geography, Vol. 22, No. 4. (1 July 2001), pp. 333-342,


A focus of geography is the study of complexity: we include many interacting processes when we study places. Another view of complexity in geography is that complex pattern, in particular spatial pattern, can arise from few or simple interactions, if they are nonlinear. Environmental responses to global change are likely to be nonlinear and thus complex. Shifts in ecotones–the boundaries of vegetation types or biomes–may be indicative of such complex response to global change. One reason for expecting nonlinearity is that ...


Novel quantitative indicators to characterize the protective effect of mountain forests against rockfall

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 67 (August 2016), pp. 98-107,


[Highlights] [::] We modelled rockfall events on 3886 different forests located in all the French Alps. [::] We proposed two indicators to assess reductions of rockfall frequency and intensity. [::] We defined one indicator to evaluate the overall rockfall protection of each forest. [::] The indicators are easily and accurately predicted with three forest characteristics. [::] This approach has direct applications in forest management and rockfall assessment. [Abstract] Natural hazards are frequent in mountain areas where they regularly cause casualties and damages to human infrastructures. Mountain forests contribute ...


Tree cover and seasonal precipitation drive understorey flammability in alpine mountain forests

Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 43, No. 9. (September 2016), pp. 1869-1880,


[Aim] Little is known about the understorey flammability of European mountain forests. The aim of this study was to determine the relative effects of climate, vegetation structure and composition on the fuel-driven variation in fire spread and intensity. [Location] The western Alps. [Methods] Fire spread and intensity were simulated under constant moisture and weather conditions for a wide range of understorey fuel parameters measured in the litter, grass and shrub layers. Simulation outputs were used to compare understorey flammability between different forest ecosystem types (FET). The ...


From dwindling ice to headwater lakes: could dams replace glaciers in the European Alps?

Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 11, No. 5. (01 May 2016), 054022,


The potential exploitation of areas becoming ice-free in response to ongoing climate change has rarely been addressed, although it could be of interest from the water management perspective. Here we present an estimate for the potential of mitigating projected changes in seasonal water availability from melting glaciers by managing runoff through reservoirs. For the European Alps we estimate that by the end of the century, such a strategy could offset up to 65% of the expected summer-runoff changes from presently glacierized ...


Evidences of drought stress as a predisposing factor to Scots pine decline in Valle d’Aosta (Italy)

European Journal of Forest Research In European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 131, No. 4. (25 October 2012), pp. 989-1000,


Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) forests of many inner Alpine valleys have recently displayed a quick loss of vitality. A decline disease has been suggested as the cause, with drought as the main predisposing factor and the additional contribution of biotic agents inciting tree dieback. This study is focused on Valle d’Aosta, a dry, inner-Alpine region in NW Italy. We inferred vitality changes between years 2000 and 2007 by computing reductions in enhanced vegetation index (EVI). Image differencing was carried ...


Habitat destruction: death by a thousand cuts

In Conservation Biology for All (01 January 2010), pp. 73-87,


[Excerpt] Humankind has dramatically transformed much of the Earth’s surface and its natural ecosystems. This process is not new—it has been ongoing for millennia—but it has accelerated sharply over the last two centuries, and especially in the last several decades. [\n] Today, the loss and degradation of natural habitats can be likened to a war of attrition. Many natural ecosystems are being progressively razed, bulldozed, and felled by axes or chainsaws, until only small scraps of their original extent survive. Forests have been hit especially hard: the global area of forests has been reduced ...


Host-specific insect herbivores as sensors of climate change in arctic and Alpine environments

Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 30, No. 1. (1998), pp. 78-83,


The distributions of host-specific herbivorous insects along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients, particularly within arctic and alpine environments, provide useful analogs for predicted future changes that are likely to occur over time at any one location, given a gradually changing thermal environment. It is suggested that selected examples of these insect/plant systems can serve as highly responsive sensors of changing climatic temperatures. Distributions of insects that show a restricted occurrence within the overall range of their host plant are predicted to respond ...


Root cohesion of forest species in the Italian Alps

Plant and Soil, Vol. 324, No. 1-2. (2009), pp. 71-89,


Forests can prevent and/or mitigate hydrogeomorphic hazards in mountainous landscapes. Their effect is particularly relevant in the case of shallow landslides phenomena, where plants decrease the water content of the soil and increase its mechanical strength. Although such an effect is well known, its quantification is a relatively new challenge. The present work estimates the effect of some forest species on hillslope stability in terms of additional root cohesion by means of a model based on the classical Wu and Waldron ...


Effectiveness of vegetation barriers for marly sediment trapping

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 29, No. 9. (August 2004), pp. 1161-1169,


Vegetation barriers can be effective in trapping eroded sediment, but little knowledge exists on the characteristics of vegetation barriers efficient in trapping all sediments from an eroded zone upslope. The objective of this study is to quantify the effectiveness of vegetation barriers for marly sediment trapping. Relationships between eroded zones and vegetation barriers – composed of low vegetation, that is to say herbaceous and under-shrub layers – located downslope and sufficient to stop all the sediments eroded above, have been studied ...


Host-specific insect herbivores as sensors of climate change in Arctic and Alpine environments

Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 30, No. 1. (1998), pp. 78-83

Linking plant morphological traits to uprooting resistance in eroded marly lands (Southern Alps, France)

Plant and Soil In Plant and Soil, Vol. 324, No. 1-2. (2009), pp. 31-42,


In marly catchments of the French Southern Alps, soils are subjected to harsh water erosion that can result in concentrated flows uprooting small plants. Evaluating and predicting plant resistance to uprooting from simple plant traits is therefore highly important so that the most efficient plant strategy for future restoration of eroded slopes can be defined. Twelve species growing on marly land were studied. For each species, in-situ lateral uprooting tests were conducted and morphological plant traits were measured on small plants ...


An analysis of forest restoration 120 years after reforestation on badlands in the Southwestern Alps

Restoration Ecology, Vol. 10, No. 1. (March 2002), pp. 16-26,


We report the results of descriptive and functional analyses of a representative forest and watershed in the southwestern Alps, where the Forest Service has attempted reforestation of badlands for erosion control since 1860, relying on the non-native Pinus nigra ssp. nigra (Austrian black pine). One hundred twenty years after the first tree plantings, the plant communities are still early seral assemblages for the most part, with Austrian black pine occurring alone in the canopy. In contrast, most of the marly soils ...


Ahornwälder im Jura und in den Alpen tab

Phytocoenologia, Vol. 2, No. 3-4. (1975), pp. 244-260


Maple forests in the jurassic mountains and the Alps. The five sycomore forest communities which are known till today are characterised floristically and ecologically. Their character species: Lunaria rediviva, Actaea spicata, Polystichum lobatum, Aconitum lycoctonum, Phyllitis scolopendrium and Aruncus dioicus are rare or are totally lacking in beech and silverfir forests. Consequently a new alliance should be formed (Lunario-Acerion) incorporating Phyllitido-Aceretum,, Corydakido-Aceretum, Ulmo-Aceretum, Sorbo-Aceretum, Arunco-Aceretum. These sycomore forests colonise rough, rock-strewn, sloping sites, which have little soil development and lack surface ...


Natural afforestation and landscape changes in the Eastern Prealps of Italy

Revue de Géographie Alpine, Vol. 81, No. 3. (1993), pp. 95-102


The paper describes the consequences of agricultural decline on the vegetation and landscapes of the Italian eastern Prealps (Friuli - Venezia Giulia). Since the beginning of the century, and in particular from the 1950s onwards, the area covered by forest has increased as agricultural land and abandoned meadows have given way to successions of secondary vegetation. The most common woodlands are formed of ash and sycamore, manna-larch and hop hornbeam, or durmast-oak and hop hornbeam. These vegetation formations are susceptible to ...


Characterization of fungal communities associated with the bark beetle Ips typographus varies depending on detection method, location, and beetle population levels

Mycological Progress In Mycological Progress, Vol. 12, No. 1. (11 May 2013), pp. 127-140,


The Eurasian spruce bark beetle Ips typographus and their fungal associates can cause severe damage to Norway spruce forests. In this paper, by using both molecular and cultural methods, we compared fungal assemblages on bark beetles from different locations, characterized by different beetle population levels. Ips typographus was trapped in the western Alps in two outbreak and in two control areas. Sequencing of clone libraries of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) identified 31 fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), while fungal isolations yielded ...


A new late glacial to early Holocene palaeobotanical and archaeological record in the Eastern Pre-Alps: the Palughetto basin (Cansiglio Plateau, Italy)

Journal of Quaternary Science, Vol. 15, No. 8. (December 2000), pp. 789-803,<789::aid-jqs556>;2-e


A late glacial to early Holocene lacustrine and peat succession, rich in conifer remains and including some palaeolithic flint artefacts, has been investigated in the Palughetto intermorainic basin (Venetian Pre-Alps). The geomorphological and stratigraphical relationships, 14C dates and pollen analyses allow a reconstruction of the environmental history of the basin and provide significant insights into the reforestation and peopling of the Pre-Alps. The onset of peat accumulation is dated to 14.4–14.1 kyr cal. BP, coinciding with reforestation at middle altitudes that ...


Alpines, trees, and refugia in Europe

Plant Ecology & Diversity, Vol. 1, No. 2. (24 November 2008), pp. 147-160,


Refugia were critically important for species survival in both glacial and interglacial stages of the Quaternary. The classical view of glacial stages is that alpine and arctic plants were widespread in the lowlands of central Europe and around the margins of the continental and alpine ice-sheets, whereas trees were restricted to localised refugial areas in southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin. New palaeobotanical evidence in Europe suggests, however, that this classical view is incomplete and that tree distributional ranges during the ...


Fire ecology north and south of the Alps since the last ice age

The Holocene, Vol. 15, No. 8. (01 December 2005), pp. 1214-1226,


Wildfires are very rare in central Europe, which is probably why fire effects on vegetation have been neglected by most central European ecologists and palaeoecologists. Presently, reconstructions of fire history and fire ecology are almost absent. We analysed sediment cores from lakes on the Swiss Plateau (Lobsigensee and Soppensee) for pollen and charcoal to investigate the relationship between vegetation and fire. Microscopic charcoal evidence suggests increasing regional fire frequencies during the Neolithic (7350-4150 cal. BP, 5400-2200 BC) and the subsequent prehistoric ...


I boschi delle regioni alpine italiane



La conservazione della biodiversità, la protezione della Natura e la gestione sostenibile delle foreste costituiscono temi che sempre più richiamano l´attenzione di molteplici organismi internazionali e dell´opinione pubblica, preoccupati dal progressivo degrado che lo sviluppo industriale ha provocato all´ambiente. La soluzione di questi problemi non può che derivare da una maggiore conoscenza dei diversi ambienti, dalla comprensione del loro naturale funzionamento e dall´individuazione di linee gestionali che, rispettose dei meccanismi che ne regolano la vita, consentano di conservarne e migliorarne la qualità ...


Die Vegetation der Alpen im europäischen Gebirgsraum



Als Ergebnis jahrelanger Forschungsarbeit legt der Autor ein auf der Analyse des Vegetationsaufbaues basierendes, allgemeines biogeographisches Alpenmodell vor, das auch Parallelen zu anderen europäischen Gebirgsmassiven einbezieht. Methodisch werden, ausgehend von der natürlichen alpinen Flora und der Bewaldung, die kollinen, montanen, subalpinen und alpinen Hoehenstufen beschrieben und das alpine Bausystem der Vegetation durch einen Vergleich mit dem Schweizer Jura, Appenin, den Dinariden, dem herzynischen Bogen, Pyrenäen und Karpaten beurteilt. ...


Early human impact (5000-3000 BC) affects mountain forest dynamics in the Alps

Journal of Ecology, Vol. 103, No. 2. (1 March 2015), pp. 281-295,


[Summary] [::] The resilience, diversity and stability of mountain ecosystems are threatened by climatic as well as land-use changes, but the combined effects of these drivers are only poorly understood. [::] We combine two high-resolution sediment records from Iffigsee (2065 m a.s.l.) and Lauenensee (1382 m a.s.l.) at different elevations in the Northern Swiss Alps to provide a detailed history of vegetational changes during the period of first pastoralism (ca. 7000–5000 cal. BP, 5000–3000 BC) in order to understand ongoing and future changes ...


Forest pathogens with higher damage potential due to climate change in Europe

Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, Vol. 30, No. 2. (1 April 2008), pp. 177-195,
Keywords: abies-alba   alnus-cordata   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   alnus-viridis   alpine-region   armillaria-spp   biscogniauxia-mediterranea   biscogniauxia-nummularia   carpinus-betulus   castanea-sativa   ceratocystis-platani   climate-change   corylus-avellana   cryphonectria-parasitica   cupressus-arizonica   cupressus-macrocarpa   cupressus-sempervirens   diplodia-pinea   dothistroma-pini   dothistroma-septosporum   droughts   dutch-elm-disease   europe   fagus-sylvatica   forest-pests   global-warming   gremmeniella-abietina   heterobasidion   heterobasidion-abietinum   heterobasidion-annosum   leptographium-spp   megastigmus-wachtli   mycosphaerella-pini   oak-decline   olea-europaea   ophiostoma-novo-ulmi   ophiostoma-ulmi   phytophthora-alni   phytophthora-cinnamomi   phytophthora-polonica   picea-abies   pinus-banksiana   pinus-cembra   pinus-contorta   pinus-halepensis   pinus-nigra   pinus-pallasiana   pinus-pinaster   pinus-pinea   pinus-radiata   pinus-spp   pinus-sylvestris   platanus-spp   pseudotsuga   quercus-cerris   quercus-ilex   quercus-petraea   quercus-pubescens   quercus-robur   quercus-rotundifolia   quercus-spp   quercus-suber   scirrhia-pini   secondary-opportunistic-pest   seiridium-cardinale   seiridium-spp   silver-fir-decline   species-decline   sphaeropsis-sapinea   temperate-mountain-system   ulmus-glabra  


Abstract Most atmospheric scientists agree that climate changes are going to increase the mean temperature in Europe with increased frequency of climatic extremes, such as drought, floods, and storms. Under such conditions, there is high probability that forests will be subject to increased frequency and intensity of stress due to climatic extremes. Therefore, impacts of climate change on forest health should be carefully evaluated. Given these assumptions, several fungal diseases on trees may become more devastating because of the following factors: ...


Gebirgsnadelwaelder : ein praxisorientierter Leitfaden fuer eine standortgerechte Waldbehandlung | Groenekennis



Das Buch möchte das Verständnis für die komplexen Abläufe in den Wäldern unserer Gebirge wecken und ihre Betreuung in einfacher und verständlicher Form näherbringen. Lust und Freude zum Ergründen und Beobachten sollen geweckt werden. Mit Hilfe von praxisnahen Beobachtungsanregungen wird die Entscheidungsfindung in der Waldbetreuung erleichtert und die Vertrautheit mit den Gebirgsnadelwäldern nähergebracht. Mit dem wissenschaftlich fundierten, jedoch einfach geschriebenen Sachbuch soll neben Fachleuten vor allem ein breiter Kreis von Interessierten angesprochen werden. Charakter und Dynamik der verbreitetsten Lebensgemeinschaften der Gebirgswälder ...


Vegetation Mitteleuropas mit den Alpen



Dieses Handbuch behandelt die naturräumlichen und pflanzengeographischen Grundlagen Mitteleuropas sowie die Entwicklung unter dem Einfluss des Menschen in den letzten 7000 Jahren – in den Bereichen Vegetations- und Standortskunde, Ökophysiologie, Populationsökologie, Ökosystemforschung und Naturschutzbiologie. Ein Schwerpunkt liegt auf den aktuellen Umweltbelastungen und der daraus resultierenden hohen Dynamik der Lebensgemeinschaften in heutiger Zeit. Mit rund 1000 gut erläuterten Abbildungen und Tabellen, einer überarbeiteten Version der Zeigerwerte der Pflanzen Mitteleuropas, 5300 Literaturzitaten und umfangreichem Register. Ein unverzichtbares Nachschlagewerk und Lehrbuch für Studierende und Wissenschaftler der Ökologie, ...


Alnus viridis expansion contributes to excess reactive nitrogen release, reduces biodiversity and constrains forest succession in the Alps

Alpine Botany In Alpine Botany, Vol. 124, No. 2. (2014), pp. 187-191,


Reduction in land use and complete land abandonment are widespread in mountainous regions and are mainly driven by socio-economic factors. Following land-use decline, shrubs and trees expand rapidly into montane and subalpine grassland and alter ecosystem properties at a large scale. In particular, the N2-fixing shrub Alnus viridis is currently spreading at a breath-taking speed and thereby reduces biodiversity, leads to substantial reactive nitrogen enrichment and suppresses species succession towards coniferous forests across large areas in the Alps. In addition, this ...


Flora alpina: Ein Atlas sämtlicher 4500 Gefässpflanzen der Alpen

Keywords: alpine-region   flora  


Es existiert eine italienische Ausgabe (Ed. Zanichelli) und eine französische Ausgabe (Ed. Bélin) der Flora alpina. Wieviele Gefässpflanzen umfasst die Flora der Alpen? Wie sehen sie aus? Wie werden sie korrekt benannt? Welche Arten sind einjährig, mehrjährig oder verholzt? Wann blühen sie? Wo kann man ihnen begegnen? Welche Ökologie charakterisiert die einzelne Art? Die Flora alpina behandelt erstmals in einem Werk sämtliche Blüten- und Farnpflanzen des ganzen Alpenraumes, von Nizza bis Wien, von den Talböden bis zum ewigen Schnee, und gibt ...


L’aire de repartition de l’aune vert. Documents pour la carte de la vegetation des Alpes

Vol. 5 (1967), pp. 81-111


La section Alnobetula du genre Alnus contient deux espèces : A. crispa, en Asie du Nord-Est et Amérique du Nord, A. viridis, en Europe. L.'aire de ce dernier a été précisée en détail dans les Alpes par exploration du terrain, dépouillement de photographies aériennes et enquête auprès de toutes les Universités alpines, une carte est donnée. Les Aunaies vertes sont denses dans l'étage subalpin des chaînes alpine, carpatique et dinarique. Leur extension et leur densité dans les Alpes nord- occidentales sont ...


Tree mortality caused by Gremmeniella abietina in a subalpine afforestation in the central Alps and its relationship with duration of snow cover

Forest Pathology, Vol. 29, No. 1. (February 1999), pp. 65-74,

Effects of microsite on growth of Pinus cembra in the subalpine zone of the Austrian Alps

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 61, No. 4. (June 2004), pp. 319-325,
Keywords: alpine-region   ecology   pinus-cembra  

Alpine glaciers to disappear within decades?

Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, No. 13. (2006),


Past, present and potential future glacier cover in the entire European Alps has been assessed from an integrated approach, combining in-situ measurements, remote sensing techniques and numerical modeling for equilibrium line altitudes. Alpine glaciers lost 35% of their total area from 1850 until the 1970s, and almost 50% by 2000. Total glacier volume around 1850 is estimated at some 200 km3 and is now close to one-third of this value. From the model experiment, we show that a 3°C warming of ...


Climate change impacts on hydropower in the Swiss and Italian Alps

Science of The Total Environment (November 2013),


This paper provides a synthesis and comparison of methodologies and results obtained in several studies devoted to the impact of climate change on hydropower. By putting into perspective various case studies, we provide a broader context and improved understanding of climate changes on energy production. We also underline the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches used as far as technical, physical and economical aspects are concerned. Although the catchments under investigation are located close to each other in geographic terms (Swiss ...


Remote sensing of larch phenological cycle and analysis of relationships with climate in the Alpine region

Global Change Biology, Vol. 16, No. 9. (March 2010), pp. 2504-2517,


This research aims at developing a remote sensing technique for monitoring the interannual variability of the European larch phenological cycle in the Alpine region of Aosta Valley (Northern Italy) and to evaluate its relationships with climatic factors. Phenological field observations were conducted in eight test sites from 2005 to 2007 to determine the dates of completion of different phenological phases. MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) 250 m 16-days normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series were fitted with double logistic curves and ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 2

(February 2014)
Keywords: agroecosystems   agroforestry   ailanthone   ailanthus-altissima   ailanthus-glandulosa   ailanthus-spp   air-pollution   air-quality   alaska   albania   albedo   albizia-guachapele   albizia-julibrissin   albizia-lebbek   alcoholic-beverage   alder-decline   aleurites-fordii   aleurites-moluccana   algarve   algebra   algorithm-engineering   algorithm-errors   algorithmics   algorithms   alien-species   allelochemicals   allelopathy   allergen   allergy   allozymes   alnus-cordata   alnus-cremastogyne   alnus-crispa   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-hirsuta   alnus-incana   alnus-nepalensis   alnus-rhombifolia   alnus-rubra   alnus-spp   alnus-viridis   aloe-dichotoma   alpine-environment   alpine-region   alsophila-pometaria   altica-populi   altitudinal-gradient   aluminium   amaranthus-spp   amazonia   ambiguity   amblypelta-cocophaga   ambrosiella-spp   amelanchier-laevis   amelanchier-ovalis   amelanchier-spp   amelancier-ovalis   amorpha-fruticosa   amsterdam   anacardium-occidentale   anaerea-calcarata   anaerea-carcharias   analogic-thinking   analysis   ancient-forest   ancient-forest-plant-species   ande-region   andira-inermis   animal   animal-feed   anisogramma-anomala   anisotrpy   annona-cherimola   annual-precipitation   anomaly-detection   anoplophora-glabripennis   anoplophora-horsfieldi   anoxia   ansi   ant-colony-optimization   antarctic-region   antarctic-sea-ice   anthropic-feedback   anthropocene   anthropogenic-changes   anthropogenic-impacts   anthropogenic-unsustainable-species-distribution   anti-inflammatory   anti-nociceptive   antiaris-toxicaria   antifeedant-activity   antifungal-compounds   antifungal-properties   antimycobacterial-terpenoids   antioxidative-potential   antipattern   apache2-0   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Did soil development limit spruce (Picea abies) expansion in the Central Alps during the Holocene? Testing a palaeobotanical hypothesis with a dynamic landscape model

Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 38, No. 5. (May 2011), pp. 933-949,


Aim  Forest communities in the European Central Alps are highly sensitive to climatic change. Palaeobotanical studies have demonstrated that forests rapidly expanded upslope during Holocene warm intervals and contracted when temperatures fell. However, temperature alone cannot account for important changes in tree species abundance. For example, population expansion by Norway spruce (Picea abies), a dominant subalpine species, lagged suitable temperatures by about 3000 years in eastern and by 6000 years in western Switzerland. We hypothesize that spruce expansion was delayed by limited water ...


Vulnerability of Pinus cembra L. in the Alps and the Carpathian mountains under present and future climates

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 259, No. 4. (05 February 2010), pp. 750-761,


Proactive management should be applied within a forest conservation context to prevent extinction or degradation of those forest ecosystems that we suspect will be affected by global warming in the next century. The aim of this study is to estimate the vulnerability under climate change of a localized and endemic tree species Pinus cembra that occurs in the alpine timberline. We used the Random Forest ensemble classifier and available bioclimatic and ecological data to model present and future suitable areas for ...


Direct and indirect effects of shade on four forest tree seedlings in the French Alps

Ecology, Vol. 84, No. 10. (October 2003), pp. 2741-2750,


A number of authors have documented a higher occurrence of tree seedlings below the canopy of adult trees than in openings, particularly in mesic conditions, where increases in resources in openings stimulate the growth of competing shade-intolerant forbs. These patterns may be explained by indirect facilitation. Indirect facilitation has been mainly explored using models, and too few experimental studies have been conducted to understand the conditions under which it is likely to occur. We test here the indirect facilitation model in ...


Waves of Larch Budmoth Outbreaks in the European Alps

Science, Vol. 298, No. 5595. (01 November 2002), pp. 1020-1023,


Spatially extended population models predict complex spatiotemporal patterns, such as spiral waves and spatial chaos, as a result of the reaction-diffusion dynamics that arise from trophic interactions. However, examples of such patterns in ecological systems are scarce. We develop a quantitative technique to demonstrate the existence of waves in Central European larch budmoth (Zeiraphera diniana Gn.) outbreaks. We show that these waves travel toward the northeast-east at 210 kilometers per year. A theoretical model involving a moth-enemy interaction predicts directional waves, ...


Disturbance history and dynamics of an old-growth mixed species mountain forest in the Slovenian Alps

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 257, No. 9. (April 2009), pp. 1893-1901,


A long history of human presence in the Alps has made studies of natural forest structure, composition, and disturbance processes difficult. In the Slovenian Alps, we identified a mixed European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)-silver fir (Abies alba Mill.)-Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand with old-growth characteristics that escaped past cutting. We reconstructed the dynamics of the stand using a combination of stand and age structure analyses, dendroecological evidence of past canopy disturbance, and historical evidence of past human activities. The ...


Changes in landscape structure in the northwestern Alps over the last 7000 years: lessons from soil charcoal

Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 11, No. 5. (October 2000), pp. 705-714,


Current land-use abandonment and the current rise in temperature in the Alps both suggest that tree limits may change. When it is assumed that the climate of the early mid-Holocene between 8000 and 5000 yr before present is analogous to that of the predicted climate of the late 21st century, palaeo-ecological studies of the early Holocene may provide data for the prediction of the vegetation pattern in a century from now. It appears that mid-Holocene charcoal assemblages can be used to ...


Carbon stocks and soil respiration rates during deforestation, grassland use and subsequent Norway spruce afforestation in the Southern Alps, Italy

Tree Physiology, Vol. 20, No. 13. (01 July 2000), pp. 849-857,


Changes in carbon stocks during deforestation, reforestation and afforestation play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Cultivation of forest lands leads to substantial losses in both biomass and soil carbon, whereas forest regrowth is considered to be a significant carbon sink. We examined below- and aboveground carbon stocks along a chronosequence of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands (0–62 years old) regenerating on abandoned meadows in the Southern Alps. A 130-year-old mixed coniferous Norway spruce–white fir (Abies alba ...


Patterns of Land-use Abandonment Control Tree-recruitment and Forest Dynamics in Mediterranean Mountains

Ecosystems In Ecosystems, Vol. 10, No. 6. (1 September 2007), pp. 936-948,


Mediterranean ecosystems have been impacted for millennia by human practices, particularly agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the middle of the nineteenth century, land-use abandonment has lead to scrubland and forest expansion, especially in mountain areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. This study aimed at analyzing how grazing history affects subsequent forest dynamics at a site located in the limestone foothills of the Southern Alps (France). The approach combines archival documents and dendroecology to investigate the origin, establishment and development of forest ...


Growth responses to climate in a multi-species tree-ring network in the Western Carpathian Tatra Mountains, Poland and Slovakia

Tree Physiology, Vol. 27, No. 5. (01 May 2007), pp. 689-702,


We analyzed growth responses to climate of 24 tree-ring width and four maximum latewood density chronologies from the greater Tatra region in Poland and Slovakia. This network comprises 1183 ring-width and 153 density measurement series from four conifer species (Picea abies (L.) Karst., Larix decidua Mill., Abies alba (L.) Karst., and Pinus mugo (L.)) between 800 and 1550 m a.s.l. Individual spline detrending was used to retain annual to multi-decadal scale climate information in the data. Twentieth century temperature and precipitation ...


Coping with global climate change: strategies, policies and measures for the tourism industry



The importance of the tourism industry is increasing globally, and many tourist destinations owe their growing success to the availability of natural resources: guaranteed sunshine during the summer season, or snow during wintertime. However, rising temperatures and other indirect impacts of climate change will more than likely alter the ecosystems of many worldwide destinations. In some regions, the Alps for example, the future of tourism products such as skiing will be threatened. It is for this reason that Alpine tourism industry, ...


Applied Remote Sensing in Mountain Regions: A Workshop Organized by EURAC in the Core of the Alps

Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 27, No. 3. (1 August 2007), pp. 286-287,


Remote sensing supports monitoring in mountain areas Mountain areas are highly dynamic and sensitive regions. Changes in human land use and climate conditions, an increasing number of natural hazard phenomena, and increased competition in a globalized economy are putting the environment and societies in mountain regions under pressure. Consequently, the observation of these phenomena or their representative indicators at various scales in time and space has become an urgent task. Monitoring—ie the repetition of such observation activities—in sufficient frequency for large and ...


The relative importance of climatic effects, wildfires and management for future forest landscape dynamics in the Swiss Alps

Global Change Biology, Vol. 12, No. 8. (1 August 2006), pp. 1435-1450,


Forest landscape dynamics result from the complex interaction of driving forces and ecological processes operating on various scales. Projected climate change for the 21st century will alter climate-sensitive processes, causing shifts in species composition and also bringing about changes in disturbance regimes, particularly regarding wildfires. Previous studies of the impact of climate change on forests have focused mainly on the direct effects of climate. In the present study, we assessed the interactions among forest dynamics, climate change and large-scale disturbances such ...


Soil erosion risk assessment in the alpine area according to the IPCC scenarios

In Threats to Soil Quality in Europe, No. EUR 23438 EN. (2008), pp. 47-58


The general aim of research was an estimation of actual erosion over the whole alpine space and a spatial analysis of soil erosion trends in different IPCC(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenarios. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was applied to the whole alpine space. It allowed to produce, with a spatial resolution of 100 m, the map of actual soil erosion and two further maps defining soil erosion rates in IPCC A2 and B2 scenarios. This analysis was carried out by means of the dataset ...

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