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Selection: with tag ailanthus-altissima [17 articles] 


Post-fire spread of alien plant species in a mixed broad-leaved forest of the Insubric region

Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, Vol. 207, No. 1. (January 2012), pp. 19-29,


How do tree species regenerate and which ecological conditions are required after forest fire in the Insubric region of the Alps? Are indigenous stand-forming tree species resistant over the invasion of alien plant species after such a disturbance? We addressed these questions in a case study in the Swiss canton of Ticino. In April 2006, a surface fire with severe intensity burnt a forest area of 55 ha on a south-facing slope (400–800 m.a.s.l.). The dominant trees in the investigated area ...


Risk to plant health of Flavescence dorée for the EU territory

EFSA Journal, Vol. 14, No. 12. (December 2016), 4603,


Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH) performed a quantitative analysis of the risk posed by the Flavescence dorée phytoplasma (FDp) in the EU territory. Three scenarios were analysed, one with current measures in place (scenario A0), one designed to improve grapevine propagation material phytosanitary status (scenario A1) and one with reinforced eradication and containment (scenario A2). The potential for entry is limited, FDp being almost non-existent outside the EU. FDp and its major ...


  1. ACRP, 2013. VitisClim Modelling epidemiological and economic consequences of Grapevine Flavescence dorée phytoplasma to Austrian viticulture under a climate change scenario. Final Report, .
  2. AGRI4CAST, online. Interpolated Meteorological Data. Available online: .
  3. Bagnoli, B., Gargani, E., 2011. Survey on Scaphoideus titanus egg distribution on grapevine. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 67, 233–237.
  4. Belli, G., Fortusini, A., Osler, R., 1978. Present knowledge on diseases of the

Zur Verbreitung, Vergesellschaftung und Einbürgerung des Götterbaumes (Ailanthus altissima [Mill.] Swingle) in Mitteleuropa

Tuexenia, Vol. 4 (1984)


[German] Nach einer kurzen Übersicht über die weltweite Kultur von Ailanthus altissima werden spontane Verbreitung, Vergesellschaftung und Einbürgerung in Mitteleuropa erörtert und mit Angaben aus anderen Teilen Europas verglichen. [\n] Als entscheidender Klimafaktor für die Ausbildung der nördlichen Arealgrenze, die quer durch das Norddeutsche Tiefland verläuft, ist eine lange Vegetationsperiode mit hoher sommerlicher Wärmesumme anzusehen. Ailanthus fehlt in den kühleren Küstengebieten sowie in Gebirgen und ist in wärmeren Gebieten weitgehend an Städte gebunden. Am Beispiel von Berlin (West) konnte gezeigt werden, daß ...


Ailanthus altissima

In Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse: Handbuch und Atlas der Dendrologie (2013)


Der aus China stammende Götterbaum hat in den 250 Jahren seit seiner ersten Einführung nach Europa eine rasante Entwicklung vom seltenen "Exoten" zu einem inzwischen weltweit verbreiteten Neophyten mit starker Ausbreitungstendenz genommen. Er wurde häufig als Zierbaum, Straßenbaum, zur Holzgewinnung und sogar zur Produktion von Naturseide angepflanzt. Heute ist der Götterbaum als wild wachsende Art in Gebieten mit gemäßigtem und mediterranem Klima weltweit verbreitet. Dass er in weiten Teilen Mitteleuropas bislang vor allem in Städten vorkommt, wird mit seiner Wärmebedürftigkeit und ...


Foliar Symptoms and Growth Reduction of Ailanthus altissima Desf. in an Area with High Ozone and Acidic Deposition in Italy

In Forest Growth Responses to the Pollution Climate of the 21st Century (1999), pp. 267-272,
Keywords: ailanthus-altissima   ozone   pollution  


Since 1985, severe defoliation and foliar symptoms have been observed on Ailanthus altissima Desf. ratmets located at a site where high ozone concentration (up to 128 n1·1−1), strongly acidic drizzle and dew (to pH 1.4) were recorded. The behaviour of plants growing in an open field (directly exposed to the pollutants), and below the canopy of an old stone pine stand was compared. Compared to the below-canopy trees, the open field trees show a variety of foliar symptoms (diffuse yellowing, apical, ...


Allergy to Ailanthus altissima (tree of heaven) pollen

Allergy, Vol. 58, No. 6. (June 2003), pp. 532-533,
Keywords: ailanthus-altissima   allergy  

Biological flora of Central Europe: Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle

Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, Vol. 8, No. 4. (July 2007), pp. 207-237,


Ailanthus altissima (tree of heaven), Simaroubaceae, is an early successional tree, native to China and North Vietnam, which has become invasive in Europe and on all other continents except Antarctica. It is most abundant in urban habitats and along transportation corridors, but can also invade natural habitats. This paper reviews the literature on the morphology, distribution, ecology, habitat requirements, population biology, genetics, physiology, impacts, management and uses of this species. ...


Spreading and coenological circumstances of the tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) in Hungary

Acta Botanica Hungarica, Vol. 41, No. 1-4. (1998), pp. 299-314


Tree of heaven is the most aggressive woody alien weed in Hungary, the coenological circumstances of which have not been yet investigated among native conditions. for characterizing its spreading, its native distribution, synanthropic area and early records in Hungary are processed by data of bibliography. Coenological circumstances of the tree of heaven are characterized by evaluation of classical coenological records in dense stands of the tree in several types of habitats in Budapest and its wider surroundings. Its vegetation improverishing effect ...


Seed dispersal of the non-native invasive tree Ailanthus altissima into contrasting environments

Plant Ecology In Plant Ecology, Vol. 192, No. 1. (2007), pp. 55-70,


Ailanthus altissima has a long history of invasion in urban areas and is currently spreading into suburban and rural areas in the eastern U.S. The objectives of our study were to (1) determine whether A. altissima seed dispersal distance differed between populations on the edges of open fields and intact deciduous forest, and (2) determine whether dispersal differed for north and south winds. We also assessed the relationship between seed characteristics and distance from source populations in fields and forests, and ...


Identification of an allelopathic compound from Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae) and characterization of its herbicidal activity.

American Journal of Botany, Vol. 83, No. 2. (1996), pp. 192-200


Aqueous extracts of Ailanthus altissima bark and foliage were previously shown to be toxic to other plants. Using bioassay-directed fractionation, I isolated the phytotoxic compound from A. altissima root bark and identified it to be ailanthone, a quassinoid compound having molecular mass of 376. Ailanthone was highly phytotoxic, with concentrations of 0.7 ml/L causing 50% inhibition of radicle elongation in a standardized bioassay with garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds. Ailanthone exhibited potent pre- and postemergence herbicidal activity in greenhouse trials. Postemergence ...


Ailanthus: Variation, cultivation and frustration

Journal of Arboriculture, Vol. 11, No. 12. (1985), pp. 361-368


A discussion of A. altissima, a shade-intolerant species resistant to pollution, which was introduced to North America in 1784 and has since become extensively naturalized. Its history, uses, ecology in North America (range, habitat, growth habit, yield, pests and diseases) and genetics are outlined. A provenance trial established in Virginia in 1971 showed problems such as high mortality, multiple stems and repeated stem dieback and regrowth after 10 yr. Although it is an aggressive pioneer, characterized by rapid juvenile growth and ...


Establishment and distribution of Ailanthus altissima in the urban environment

Journal of Environmental Horticulture, Vol. 4, No. 1. (1986), pp. 1-4


An Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle population in Ithaca, New York was found to be comprised of individuals from all size classes suggesting its continued potential for regeneration. Dispersal of seeds as intact panicles and strong root suckering contributed to its grouped formation in urban habitats. Ailanthus inhabited a range of urban sites that had a limited amount of exposed surface soil. The successful growth of Ailanthus into such sites was attributed to its simple rope-like lateral roots. ...


The Checkered Career of Ailanthus altissima

Arnoldia (1997), pp. 21-27
Keywords: ailanthus-altissima  


The history of the tree-of-heaven since its introduction into cultivation is a convoluted one. Once highly praised and widely planted as an ornamental, the species has made itself at home as a weed along our roadsides and in our fields. Ailanthus is now viewed by many as a symbol of dereliction and abandonment, but its hardiness also makes it deserving of our admiration. ...


Removing the invasive tree Ailanthus altissima and retoring natural cover

Journal of Arboriculture, Vol. 29, No. 1. (2003), pp. 18-24


Eight herbicide treatments were applied by low-volume basal applications and compared to hand cutting for the removal of Ailanthus altissima. Manual cutting of Ailanthus stimulated resprouting and increased overall stand density. Chemical control not only removed existing trees but also prevented resprouting. When evaluated 2 years after treatment, optimal control of Ailanthus was achieved with a combination of Garlon 4 and Tordon K herbicides. Garlon 4 at 20% v/v alone, Garlon 4 combined with Stalker, or Stalker herbicide alone controlled Ailanthus ...


The role of Tree-of-Heaven in Forest Land Reclamation: A Brief Review

Journal of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology, Vol. 18, No. 2. (2014), pp. 66-69


The paper presents a brief literature review regarding the uses of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle. Ecological requirements and biological characteristics of this species were also presented. Special attention was given to the role of tree-of-Heaven in land reclamation. It was concluded that this species could represent a good solution for establishment of new forest lands, especially in dry and poor sites. In this context, few recommendations were done. ...



Arnoldia, Vol. 39, No. 2. (1979), pp. 29-50
Keywords: ailanthus-altissima  


Ailanthus is called tree of heaven by some people. In its homeland, China, It Is known as Chun Situ, pronounced almost like ‘train’ and “sure” in English. Of all the trees introduced from China into American gardens, ailanthus Is the most widely naturalized. The specimens in the Harvard University Herbaria indicate that the species Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle runs wild from Massachusetts in the East to Oregon in the West, and from Toronto, Canada in North America to Tucuman, Argentina (and ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 2

(February 2014)
Keywords: age-distribution   aggregated-indices   agile-programming   agricultural-abandonment   agricultural-land   agricultural-policy   agricultural-resources   agriculture   agrilus-anxius   agrilus-biguttatus   agrilus-pannonicus   agrilus-planipennis   agrilus-spp   agrochemistry   agroecosystems   agroforestry   agrometeorology   ailanthone   ailanthus-altissima   ailanthus-glandulosa   ailanthus-spp   air-pollution   air-quality   air-quality-modelling   alaska   albania   albedo   albizia-guachapele   albizia-julibrissin   albizia-lebbek   albizzia-julibrissin   alces-alces   alcoholic-beverage   alder-decline   aleurites-fordii   aleurites-moluccana   algae   algarve   algebra   algeria   algorithm-engineering   algorithm-errors   algorithmic-accountability   algorithmics   algorithms   alien-species   allelochemicals   allelopathy   allergen   allergy   allozymes   alnus-barbata   alnus-cordata   alnus-cremastogyne   alnus-crispa   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-hirsuta   alnus-incana   alnus-nepalensis   alnus-rhombifolia   alnus-rubra   alnus-spp   alnus-subcordata   alnus-viridis   aloe-dichotoma   alpine-environment   alpine-region   alsophila-pometaria   altica-populi   altitudinal-gradient   aluminium   amaranthus-spp   amazonia   ambiguity   amblypelta-cocophaga   ambrosiella-spp   amelanchier-laevis   amelanchier-ovalis   amelanchier-spp   amelancier-ovalis   amorpha-fruticosa   amphibians   amsterdam   anacardium-occidentale   anaerea-calcarata   anaerea-carcharias   analogic-thinking   analysis   ancient-forest   ancient-forest-plant-species   ande-region   andira-inermis   anemone-trifolia   animal   animal-behaviour   animal-feed   anisogramma-anomala   anisotrpy   annona-cherimola   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...

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Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

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