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Selection: with tag agricultural-land [52 articles] 

 

Natural climate solutions

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 44. (31 October 2017), pp. 11645-11650, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1710465114

Abstract

[Significance] Most nations recently agreed to hold global average temperature rise to well below 2 °C. We examine how much climate mitigation nature can contribute to this goal with a comprehensive analysis of “natural climate solutions” (NCS): 20 conservation, restoration, and/or improved land management actions that increase carbon storage and/or avoid greenhouse gas emissions across global forests, wetlands, grasslands, and agricultural lands. We show that NCS can provide over one-third of the cost-effective climate mitigation needed between now and 2030 to stabilize ...

 

Biodiversity conservation: the key is reducing meat consumption

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 536 (December 2015), pp. 419-431, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.022

Abstract

The consumption of animal-sourced food products by humans is one of the most powerful negative forces affecting the conservation of terrestrial ecosystems and biological diversity. Livestock production is the single largest driver of habitat loss, and both livestock and feedstock production are increasing in developing tropical countries where the majority of biological diversity resides. Bushmeat consumption in Africa and southeastern Asia, as well as the high growth-rate of per capita livestock consumption in China are of special concern. The projected land ...

 

Relationships between human population density and burned area at continental and global scales

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 8, No. 12. (16 December 2013), e81188, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081188

Abstract

We explore the large spatial variation in the relationship between population density and burned area, using continental-scale Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) based on 13 years of satellite-derived burned area maps from the global fire emissions database (GFED) and the human population density from the gridded population of the world (GPW 2005). Significant relationships are observed over 51.5% of the global land area, and the area affected varies from continent to continent: population density has a significant impact on fire over most ...

 

Global and regional analysis of climate and human drivers of wildfire

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 409, No. 18. (August 2011), pp. 3472-3481, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.05.032

Abstract

Identifying and quantifying the statistical relationships between climate and anthropogenic drivers of fire is important for global biophysical modelling of wildfire and other Earth system processes. This study used regression tree and random forest analysis on global data for various climatic and human variables to establish their relative importance. The main interactions found at the global scale also apply regionally: greatest wildfire burned area is associated with high temperature (> 28 °C), intermediate annual rainfall (350–1100 mm), and prolonged dry periods (which varies by ...

 

Anthropogenic effects on global mean fire size

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 24, No. 5. (2015), 589, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf14208

Abstract

Wildland fires are an important agent in the earth’s system. Multiple efforts are currently in progress to better represent wildland fires in earth system models. Although wildland fires are a natural disturbance factor, humans have an important effect on fire occurrence by directly igniting and suppressing fires and indirectly influencing fire behaviour by changing land cover and landscape structure. Although these factors are recognised, their quantitative effect on fire growth and burned area are not well understood and therefore only partly ...

 

Ecosystem service supply and vulnerability to global change in Europe

  
Science, Vol. 310, No. 5752. (25 November 2005), pp. 1333-1337, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1115233

Abstract

Global change will alter the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. To investigate ecosystem service supply during the 21st century, we used a range of ecosystem models and scenarios of climate and land-use change to conduct a Europe-wide assessment. Large changes in climate and land use typically resulted in large changes in ecosystem service supply. Some of these trends may be positive (for example, increases in forest area and productivity) or offer opportunities (for example, “surplus land” ...

 

The economic possibilities of conservation

  
The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 27, No. 3. (01 May 1913), pp. 497-519, https://doi.org/10.2307/1883375

Abstract

[Excerpt] It is desirable to confine the idea of conservation to its original application to natural resources. Even in this sense the concept as developed in the conservation movement comprises several distinct purposes, which are not clearly separated in the popular mind. In the first place, it expresses a demand for a fair distribution of the natural resources not yet alienated. [\n] [...] The real heart of the conservation problem presents an issue which taxes the resources of economic theory to the utmost. ...

 

Green and blue water demand from large-scale land acquisitions in Africa

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 41. (11 October 2016), pp. 11471-11476, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1524741113

Abstract

[Significance] Freshwater appropriation can have vast impacts, depending on management and scale of water use. Since 2000, foreign investors have contracted an area the size of the United Kingdom in Africa, leading to increased pressure on water resources. Here we couple site-specific water demand for the crops planted there to the efficiency of different irrigation systems, while relating these estimates to local water availability. This approach enables us to identify “hotspot” areas of freshwater use where crops demand more water from irrigation ...

 

Intercomparison of MODIS albedo retrievals and in situ measurements across the global FLUXNET network

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 121 (June 2012), pp. 323-334, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2012.02.019

Abstract

[Abstract] Surface albedo is a key parameter in the Earth's energy balance since it affects the amount of solar radiation directly absorbed at the planet surface. Its variability in time and space can be globally retrieved through the use of remote sensing products. To evaluate and improve the quality of satellite retrievals, careful intercomparisons with in situ measurements of surface albedo are crucial. For this purpose we compared MODIS albedo retrievals with surface measurements taken at 53 FLUXNET sites that met strict ...

 

Determining landscape fine fuel moisture content of the Kilmore East ‘Black Saturday’ wildfire using spatially-extended point-based models

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 40 (February 2013), pp. 98-108, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.08.008

Abstract

[Abstract] Fuel moisture is the most dynamic component of bushfire fuels. It varies rapidly both spatially and temporally and plays a significant role in determining the behaviour and spread of bushfires, particularly through combustibility and ease of ignition of dead fine fuels (i.e. particle diameter <6 mm). The Kilmore East fire in Victoria, Australia, on 7 February, 2009 (“Black Saturday”) was the most destructive bushfire in Australia's history. Its behaviour was characterised by mass spotting (the launch, transport and landing of burning ...

 

Early farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 25. (21 June 2016), pp. 6886-6891, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1523951113

Abstract

[Significance] One of the most enduring and widely debated questions in prehistoric archaeology concerns the origins of Europe’s earliest farmers: Were they the descendants of local hunter-gatherers, or did they migrate from southwestern Asia, where farming began? We recover genome-wide DNA sequences from early farmers on both the European and Asian sides of the Aegean to reveal an unbroken chain of ancestry leading from central and southwestern Europe back to Greece and northwestern Anatolia. Our study provides the coup de grâce to ...

 

A unified cropland layer at 250 m for global agriculture monitoring

  
Data, Vol. 1, No. 1. (19 March 2016), 3, https://doi.org/10.3390/data1010003

Abstract

Accurate and timely information on the global cropland extent is critical for food security monitoring, water management and earth system modeling. Principally, it allows for analyzing satellite image time-series to assess the crop conditions and permits isolation of the agricultural component to focus on food security and impacts of various climatic scenarios. However, despite its critical importance, accurate information on the spatial extent, cropland mapping with remote sensing imagery remains a major challenge. Following an exhaustive identification and collection of existing ...

 

Evaluation of Skåne County's capacity to be self-sufficient in foodstuffproduction: now and for the years 2030 and 2050

  
Vol. 242 (2015)

Abstract

Sweden is becoming increasingly dependent on the import of foodstuffs from a globalfood system that is unsustainable due to its responsibility for environmental degradation and itsdependency on finite resources like fertilizers and fossil fuels. The diminishing ability to be selfsufficientin a time when peak oil, climate change, environmental degradation, exponentialpopulation growth, and a troublesome global economy might reshape the structures of the currentsystems, in a not so distant future, could be a cause for great worry. Skåne County has functioned asa ...

 

Italian Historical Rural Landscapes

  
edited by Mauro Agnoletti

Abstract

Sustainable development and rural policies have pursued strategies where farming has been often regarded as a factor deteriorating the ecosystem. But the current economic, social and environmental problems of the Earth probably call for examples of a positive integration between human society and nature. This research work presents more than a hundred case studies where the historical relationships between man and nature have generated, not deterioration, but cultural, environmental, social and economic values. The results show that is not only the ...

 

Effect of Tamarix aphylla as tree windbreak on salinity soil agriculture lands in dry region (case study: Ardakan)

  
Watershed Management Research, Vol. 26, No. 2. (2002), pp. 53-59

Abstract

In some windy, dry areas of Iran tree species such as Tamarix spp are used as windbreak to reduce soil erosion. Tamarix accumulates salt in its leaves, and then excretes it onto the leaf surface. These salts accumulate in the surface layer of soil when plants drop their leaves. Therefore some farmers are not interested to plant Tamarix as windbreak around their fields. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the effect of Tamarix as tree windbreak on the ...

 

LCLUC as an entry point for transdisciplinary research – Reflections from an agriculture land use change study in South Asia

  
Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 148 (January 2015), pp. 42-52, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.03.019

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Land use change is the most visible and complex form of change triggered by several determinants. [::] As multiple drivers shape land use change, transdisciplinary research is requisite for management. [::] Geospatial data, tools and techniques offers potential to connect disciplinary knowledge. [::] Role of effective ‘entry points’ is key to develop and scale transdisciplinary understanding. [::] LCLUC is explained as a good entry point. [Abstract] This article highlights applied understanding of classifying earth imaging data for land cover ...

References

  1. Aboelela, S.W., Larson, E., Bakken, S., Carrasquillo, O., Formicola, A., Glied, S.A., Haas, J., Gebbie, K.M., 2007. Defining interdisciplinary research: Conclusions from a critical review of the literature. Health Services Research, 42 (1 I), 329-346. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00621.x .
  2. Anu, A., Sabu, T.K., 2007. Biodiversity analysis of forest litter ant assemblages in the Wayanad region of Western Ghats using taxonomic and conventional diversity measures. Journal of Insect Science, 7, 6+. https://doi.org/10.1673/031.007.0601 .
 

Edge geometry influences patch-level habitat use by an edge specialist in south-eastern Australia

  
Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 4. (2008), pp. 377-389, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-008-9196-9

Abstract

We investigated patterns in habitat use by the noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) along farmland-woodland edges of large patches of remnant vegetation (>300 ha) in the highly fragmented box-ironbark woodlands and forests of central Victoria, Australia. Noisy miners exclude small birds from their territories, and are considered a significant threat to woodland bird communities in the study region. Seventeen different characteristics of edge habitat were recorded, together with the detection or non-detection of noisy miners along 129 500-m segments of patch edge. Habitat ...

 

Gully erosion: impacts, factors and control

  
CATENA In Gully Erosion: A Global Issue, Vol. 63, No. 2-3. (31 October 2005), pp. 132-153, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2005.06.001

Abstract

Gully erosion attracts increasing attention from scientists as reflected by two recent international meetings [Poesen and Valentin (Eds.), Catena 50 (2–4), 87–564; Li et al., 2004. Gully Erosion Under Global Change. Sichuan Science Technology Press, Chengu, China, 354 pp.]. This growing interest is associated with the increasing concern over off-site impacts caused by soil erosion at larger spatial scales than the cultivated plots. The objective of this paper is to review recent studies on impacts, factors and control of gully erosion ...

 

Accelerated sediment fluxes by water and tillage erosion on European agricultural land

  
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 34, No. 12. (30 September 2009), pp. 1625-1634, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1852

Abstract

Soil loss on arable agricultural land is typically an order of magnitude higher than under undisturbed native vegetation. Although there have been several recent attempts to quantify these accelerated fluxes at the regional, continental and even global scale, all of these studies have focused on erosion by water and wind and no large scale assessment of the magnitude of tillage erosion has been made, despite growing recognition of its significance on agricultural land. Previous field scale simulations of tillage erosion severity ...

 

Evaluating the effects of changes in landscape structure on soil erosion by water and tillage

  
Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 15, No. 6. (2000), pp. 577-589, https://doi.org/10.1023/a%3a1008198215674

Abstract

Landscape structure, or the spatial organization of different land units, has an impact on erosion and sedimentation on agricultural land. However, current erosion models emphasize the temporal, and less the spatial, variability of relevant parameters so that the effects of changes in landscape structure have hitherto not been studied in detail. Therefore, a spatially distributed water and tillage erosion model that allows the incorporation of landscape structure is presented. The model is applied to three study sites in the Belgian Loam ...

 

The effect of soil erosion on Europe's crop yields

  
Ecosystems, Vol. 10, No. 7. (2007), pp. 1209-1219, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-007-9090-3

Abstract

Soil erosion negatively affects crop yields and may have contributed to the collapse of ancient civilizations. Whether erosion may have such an impact on modern societies as well, is subject to debate. In this paper we quantify the relationship between crop yields and soil water available to plants, the most important yield-determining factor affected by erosion, at the European scale. Using information on the spatial distribution of erosion rates we calculate the potential threat of erosion-induced productivity losses. We show that ...

 

Ultimate drivers of native biodiversity change in agricultural systems

  
F1000Research, Vol. 2 (14 October 2013), 214, https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.2-214.v1

Abstract

The ability to address land degradation and biodiversity loss while maintaining the production of plant and animal products is a key global challenge. Biodiversity decline as a result of vegetation clearance, cultivation, grazing, pesticide and herbicide application, and plantation establishment, amongst other factors, has been widely documented in agricultural ecosystems. In this paper we identify six ultimate drivers that underlie these proximate factors and hence determine what native biodiversity occurs in modern agricultural landscapes; (1) historical legacies; (2) environmental change; (3) ...

 

Land take and food security: assessment of land take on the agricultural production in Europe

  
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management (17 April 2014), pp. 1-15, https://doi.org/10.1080/09640568.2014.899490

Abstract

Soil is a multifunctional, non-renewable natural resource for Europe as clearly expressed in the European Union (EU) Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (COM (2006)231). Soil carries out multiple functions, including the support of food production. Urban development and its associated land take poses a major threat to soil and could have significant effects on agricultural production. This paper aims to evaluate the potential productivity losses in European agriculture due to land-take processes between 1990 and 2006. Agricultural land take was calculated ...

 

China gets serious about its pollutant-laden soil

  
Science, Vol. 343, No. 6178. (28 March 2014), pp. 1415-1416, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.343.6178.1415

Abstract

A recent national survey found that 2.5% of China's arable land is too contaminated to grow food safely. The survey's details were so alarming that they were declared a "state secret." Now, the central government appears eager to tackle the problem; China's latest 5-year plan singles out five industries as egregious soil polluters and sets a target to reduce, by 2015, discharges of heavy metals by 15% from 2007 levels. ...

 

Making use of the ecosystem services concept in regional planning - trade-offs from reducing water erosion

  
Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology (2014), pp. 1-15, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-014-9992-3

Abstract

In this article we demonstrate how to integrate the ecosystem services concept into regional planning using the example of a case study in Saxony, Germany. We analysed how the reduction of water erosion as a regulating service impacts six other ecosystem services. Ecological integrity, provisioning services (provision of food and fibre, provision of biomass), regulating services (soil erosion protection, drought-risk regulation, flood regulation), and the cultural service landscape aesthetics are taken into account. Using a decision support software, we found that ...

 

Assessment of soil erosion vulnerability in western Europe and potential impact on crop productivity due to loss of soil depth using the ImpelERO model

  
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 81, No. 3. (November 2000), pp. 179-190, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-8809(00)00161-4

Abstract

Soil erosion continues to be a major concern for the development of sustainable agricultural management systems. Sustainability modelling analysis for soil erosion must include not only vulnerability prediction but also address impact and response assessment, in an integrated way. This paper focuses on the impact of soil erosion on crop productivity and the accommodation of agricultural use and management practices to soil protection. From the Andalucia region in Spain, soil/slope, climate and crop/management information was used to further develop an expert-system/neural-network ...

 

Land use optimization in watershed scale

  
Land Use Policy, Vol. 26, No. 2. (April 2009), pp. 186-193, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2008.02.007

Abstract

Managing a watershed for satisfying the inhabitant's demand is a difficult task if one has to maintain a reasonable balance between usually conflicting environmental flows and demands. The solution to these complex issues requires the use of mathematical techniques to take into account conflicting objectives. Many optimization models exist for general management systems but there is a knowledge gap in linking practical problems with the optimum use of all land resources under conflicting demands in a watershed. In the present study, ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 1

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: 10th-percentile-training-presence   80-20-principle   abies-alba   abies-balsamea   abies-borisii-regis   abies-bornmulleriana   abies-cephalonica   abies-cilicica   abies-concolor   abies-equi-trojani   abies-firma   abies-grandis   abies-holophylla   abies-lasiocarpa   abies-magnifica   abies-marocana   abies-nebrodensis   abies-nephrolepis   abies-nordmanniana   abies-numidica   abies-pinsapo   abies-procera   abies-sachalinensis   abies-sibirica   abies-spp   abiotic-factors   above-ground-biomass   abrupt-changes   acacia-auriculiformis   acacia-dealbata   acacia-erioloba   acacia-farnesiana   acacia-koa   acacia-saligna   acacia-seyal   acacia-spp   acacia-tortilis   acacia-xanthophloea   acalitus-rudis   accessibility   accuracy   accuracy-vs-precision   acer-campestre   acer-circinatum   acer-heldreichii   acer-lobelii   acer-macrophyllum   acer-mono   acer-monspessulanum   acer-negundo   acer-opalus   acer-peronai   acer-platanoides   acer-pseudoplatanous   acer-pseudoplatanus   acer-pseudosieboldianum   acer-rubrum   acer-saccharum   acer-sempervirens   acer-spp   acer-tataricum   aceraceous   aceria-parapopuli   acid-deposition   acm   acorns   acrocomia-aculeata   acute-oak-decline   adansonia-digitata   adaptation   adaptive-control   adaptive-response   adda-lake   adenium-obesum   adonidia-merrillii   adventitious-root   aerosol   aesculus-californica   aesculus-hippocastanum   aesculus-spp   aesthetic-value   afforestation   africa   agave-spp   age   age-distribution   aggregated-indices   agile-programming   agricultural-abandonment   agricultural-land   agricultural-policy   agricultural-resources   agriculture   agrilus-anxius   agrilus-biguttatus   agrilus-pannonicus   agrilus-planipennis   agrilus-spp   agrochemistry   inrmm-list-of-tags  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

A coherent set of future land use change scenarios for Europe

  
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment In Scenario-Based Studies of Future Land Use in Europe, Vol. 114, No. 1. (May 2006), pp. 57-68, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2005.11.027

Abstract

This paper presents a range of future, spatially explicit, land use change scenarios for the EU15, Norway and Switzerland based on an interpretation of the global storylines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that are presented in the special report on emissions scenarios (SRES). The methodology is based on a qualitative interpretation of the SRES storylines for the European region, an estimation of the aggregate totals of land use change using various land use change models and the allocation ...

 

Taking a bite out of biodiversity

  
Science, Vol. 343, No. 6173. (21 February 2014), pp. 838-838, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.343.6173.838-a

Abstract

[excerpt] In the Review “Status and ecological effects of the world's largest carnivores” (10 January, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1241484), W. J. Ripple et al. claim that meat consumption by humans is one of many threats to carnivores and biodiversity. We argue that human carnivory is in fact the single greatest threat to overall biodiversity. Livestock production accounts for up to 75% of all agricultural lands and 30% of Earth's land surface, making it the single largest anthropogenic land use. Meat and feedstock production ...

 

The consequences of land-cover changes on soil erosion distribution in Slovakia

  
Geomorphology, Vol. 98, No. 3-4. (June 2008), pp. 187-198, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.12.035

Abstract

Soil erosion is a complex process determined by mutual interaction of numerous factors. The aim of erosion research at regional scales is a general evaluation of the landscape susceptibility to soil erosion by water, taking into account the main factors influencing this process. One of the key factors influencing the susceptibility of a region to soil erosion is land cover. Natural as well as human-induced changes of landscape may result in both the diminishment and acceleration of soil erosion. Recent studies ...

 

Agricultural landscape simplification does not consistently drive insecticide use

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 38. (17 September 2013), pp. 15330-15335, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1301900110

Abstract

[Significance] Increases in agricultural production have greatly altered land-use patterns, often resulting in simplified landscapes composed of large monocultures separated by fragments of natural lands. It is thought that these simplified landscapes enable agricultural insect pests to thrive due to an absence of predators and abundant food, necessitating greater insecticide use. Despite the logic of this theory, empirical support is lacking. Using a multiyear analysis it becomes clear that the presence and direction of the relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use ...

 

What Happens When Weed Killers Stop Killing?

  
Science, Vol. 341, No. 6152. (20 September 2013), pp. 1329-1329, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.341.6152.1329

Abstract

Farmers in the United States are heading for a crisis. In parts of the country, weeds resistant to the world's most popular herbicide, glyphosate, now grow in the vast majority of soybean, cotton, and corn fields. Weeds that can shrug off multiple other herbicides are also on the rise. At an American Chemical Society symposium, chemists said they have little to offer: Few new weed killers are near commercialization, and none with a novel molecular mode of action for which there ...

 

Optimal Flow Allocation in the Zambezi River System

  
Water Resources Management In Water Resources Management, Vol. 11, No. 5. (1997), pp. 377-393, https://doi.org/10.1023/a%3a1007964732399

Abstract

The optimal flow allocation in the Zambezi system, the largest multi-reservoir water resources system in southern Africa, is analysed. The problem is formulated in network terms and solved with a network flow algorithm. The present configuration of the system is taken as the reference to evaluate the benefits of the proposed modifications to the existing hydropower schemes. The introduction of additional operational constraints is also considered in order to analyse the costs of environmental protection of paludal ecosystems and to account ...

 

Uncertainty in simulating wheat yields under climate change

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 9. (09 June 2013), pp. 827-832, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1916

Abstract

Projections of climate change impacts on crop yields are inherently uncertain1. Uncertainty is often quantified when projecting future greenhouse gas emissions and their influence on climate2. However, multi-model uncertainty analysis of crop responses to climate change is rare because systematic and objective comparisons among process-based crop simulation models1, 3 are difficult4. Here we present the largest standardized model intercomparison for climate change impacts so far. We found that individual crop models are able to simulate measured wheat grain yields accurately under ...

 

Patterns of Land-use Abandonment Control Tree-recruitment and Forest Dynamics in Mediterranean Mountains

  
Ecosystems In Ecosystems, Vol. 10, No. 6. (1 September 2007), pp. 936-948, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-007-9065-4

Abstract

Mediterranean ecosystems have been impacted for millennia by human practices, particularly agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the middle of the nineteenth century, land-use abandonment has lead to scrubland and forest expansion, especially in mountain areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. This study aimed at analyzing how grazing history affects subsequent forest dynamics at a site located in the limestone foothills of the Southern Alps (France). The approach combines archival documents and dendroecology to investigate the origin, establishment and development of forest ...

 

Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 35. (27 August 2013), pp. 14296-14301, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1305198110

Abstract

Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and ...

 

Forest cover changes in the northern Carpathians in the 20th century: a slow transition

  
Journal of Land Use Science, Vol. 2, No. 2. (30 May 2007), pp. 127-146, https://doi.org/10.1080/17474230701218244

Abstract

The reversal from deforestation to forest increase is named forest transition. It combines factors related to social and economic development or policies attempting to overcome the possible scarcity of timber. This study focuses on forest transition in the northern Carpathians, stretching across four countries (Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine) with complex history and variability with respect to present-day economical development. Forest maps were computed for the 1930s and 1990s on the basis of available topographical and satellite data. Forest cover ...

 

Ten principles for a landscape approach to reconciling agriculture, conservation, and other competing land uses

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 21. (21 May 2013), pp. 8349-8356, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1210595110

Abstract

“Landscape approaches” seek to provide tools and concepts for allocating and managing land to achieve social, economic, and environmental objectives in areas where agriculture, mining, and other productive land uses compete with environmental and biodiversity goals. Here we synthesize the current consensus on landscape approaches. This is based on published literature and a consensus-building process to define good practice and is validated by a survey of practitioners. We find the landscape approach has been refined in response to increasing societal concerns ...

 

Trading carbon for food: Global comparison of carbon stocks vs. crop yields on agricultural land

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 107, No. 46. (16 November 2010), pp. 19645-19648, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011078107

Abstract

Expanding croplands to meet the needs of a growing population, changing diets, and biofuel production comes at the cost of reduced carbon stocks in natural vegetation and soils. Here, we present a spatially explicit global analysis of tradeoffs between carbon stocks and current crop yields. The difference among regions is striking. For example, for each unit of land cleared, the tropics lose nearly two times as much carbon (∼120 tons·ha−1 vs. ∼63 tons·ha−1) and produce less than one-half the annual crop ...

 

Modelling the impact of agricultural abandonment and wildfires on vertebrate diversity in Mediterranean Europe

  
In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 22, No. 10. (2007), pp. 1461-1476, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-007-9125-3

Abstract

Agricultural land abandonment, widespread in the Mediterranean, is leading to a recovery of scrubland and forests which are replacing open habitats and increasing wildfire events. Using published data, we modelled the global and regional impact of abandonment and wildfires on 554 species of terrestrial vertebrates occurring in Mediterranean Europe. For all groups except amphibians, open habitats or farmland sustained higher species richness. Open habitats showed regional differences in their conservation value, western areas being particularly important for birds and amphibians and ...

 

Indicators for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes: a pan-European study

  
Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 45, No. 1. (23 July 2007), pp. 141-150, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01393.x

Abstract

In many European agricultural landscapes, species richness is declining considerably. Studies performed at a very large spatial scale are helpful in understanding the reasons for this decline and as a basis for guiding policy. In a unique, large-scale study of 25 agricultural landscapes in seven European countries, we investigated relationships between species richness in several taxa, and the links between biodiversity and landscape structure and management. We estimated the total species richness of vascular plants, birds and five arthropod groups in ...

 

Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity - ecosystem service management

  
Ecology Letters, Vol. 8, No. 8. (1 August 2005), pp. 857-874, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00782.x

Abstract

Understanding the negative and positive effects of agricultural land use for the conservation of biodiversity, and its relation to ecosystem services, needs a landscape perspective. Agriculture can contribute to the conservation of high-diversity systems, which may provide important ecosystem services such as pollination and biological control via complementarity and sampling effects. Land-use management is often focused on few species and local processes, but in dynamic, agricultural landscapes, only a diversity of insurance species may guarantee resilience (the capacity to reorganize after ...

 

Functional landscape heterogeneity and animal biodiversity in agricultural landscapes

  
Ecology Letters, Vol. 14, No. 2. (1 February 2011), pp. 101-112, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01559.x

Abstract

Biodiversity in agricultural landscapes can be increased with conversion of some production lands into ‘more-natural’– unmanaged or extensively managed – lands. However, it remains unknown to what extent biodiversity can be enhanced by altering landscape pattern without reducing agricultural production. We propose a framework for this problem, considering separately compositional heterogeneity (the number and proportions of different cover types) and configurational heterogeneity (the spatial arrangement of cover types). Cover type classification and mapping is based on species requirements, such as feeding ...

 

The need for management of nature conservation sites designated under Natura 2000

  
Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 35, No. 6. (1 December 1998), pp. 968-973, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.1998.tb00016.x

Abstract

The Natura 2000 Network will consist of sites designated by the Member States of the European Union, under the Habitats and Birds Directives. Many of these sites need an appropriate management to maintain a favourable conservation status; this will often be based on low-intensity agricultural practices. Out of the 198 listed habitat types of the Habitats Directive, 28 (14%) could be threatened by the abandonment of low-intensity agricultural practices. The paper gives a comparative outlook over some situations in Europe, after ...

 

Uncertainties in projected impacts of climate change on European agriculture and terrestrial ecosystems based on scenarios from regional climate models

  
Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 81, No. 0. (1 May 2007), pp. 123-143, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-006-9216-1

Abstract

The uncertainties and sources of variation in projected impacts of climate change on agriculture and terrestrial ecosystems depend not only on the emission scenarios and climate models used for projecting future climates, but also on the impact models used, and the local soil and climatic conditions of the managed or unmanaged ecosystems under study. We addressed these uncertainties by applying different impact models at site, regional and continental scales, and by separating the variation in simulated relative changes in ecosystem performance ...

 

Climate change in the context of development cooperation

  
No. COM(2003) 85 final. (March 2003)
 

Adapting to crop pest and pathogen risks under a changing climate

  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 2. (March 2011), pp. 220-237, https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.102

Abstract

The need for pest and pathogen management will increase as the intensification of food production proceeds to feed the burgeoning human population. Climate is a significant driver of pest population dynamics, so climate change will require adaptive management strategies to cope with the altered status of pests and pathogens. A hierarchy of analytical tools is required to conduct risk assessments, inform policy and design pest management on scales from regions to landscapes and fields. Such tools include models for predicting potential ...

 

The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability

  
Bioresource Technology, Vol. 101, No. 6. (24 March 2010), pp. 2014-2025, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.10.037

Abstract

Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative ...

 

Agriculture: Plant perennials to save Africa's soils

  
Nature, Vol. 489, No. 7416. (19 September 2012), pp. 359-361, https://doi.org/10.1038/489359a

Abstract

Integrating perennials with food crops could restore soil health and increase staple yields, say Jerry D. Glover, John P. Reganold and Cindy M. Cox. ...

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