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Selection: with tag adaptation [88 articles] 

 

Forest fires are changing: let’s change the fire management strategy

  
Forest@ - Rivista di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale, Vol. 14, No. 4. (31 August 2017), pp. 202-205, https://doi.org/10.3832/efor2537-014

Abstract

Forest fires in Italy are changing. More frequent heatwaves and drought increase the flammability of the vegetation; the abandonment of rural land produces 30.000 ha of newly afforested areas each year; and the wildland-urban interface is expanding with the sprawl of urbanized areas. However, forest fires are rarely understood and managed in their complexity. The public opinion is often misinformed on the causes and consequences of fires in the forest. Moreover, fire management relies almost exclusively on extinction and emergency response, ...

 

Bark thickness and fire regime

  
Functional Ecology, Vol. 29, No. 3. (1 March 2015), pp. 315-327, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12372

Abstract

[::] Bark is a vital and very visible part of woody plants, yet only recently has bark characteristics started to be considered as key traits structuring communities and biomes. Bark thickness is very variable among woody plants, and I hypothesize that fire is a key factor selecting for a thick bark, and thus, at the global scale, a significant proportion of the variability in bark thickness is explained by the variability in fire regimes. Previous research has focused on the importance ...

 

Resprouting as a key functional trait: how buds, protection and resources drive persistence after fire

  
New Phytologist, Vol. 197, No. 1. (January 2013), pp. 19-35, https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12001

Abstract

[Summary] Resprouting as a response to disturbance is now widely recognized as a key functional trait among woody plants and as the basis for the persistence niche. However, the underlying mechanisms that define resprouting responses to disturbance are poorly conceptualized. Resprouting ability is constrained by the interaction of the disturbance regime that depletes the buds and resources needed to fund resprouting, and the environment that drives growth and resource allocation. We develop a buds-protection-resources (BPR) framework for understanding resprouting in fire-prone ...

 

The lanky and the corky: fire-escape strategies in savanna woody species

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 101, No. 5. (1 September 2013), pp. 1265-1272, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12118

Abstract

[::] Fire and herbivory are the main disturbances shaping the structure of savannas. In these ecosystems, the key strategies by which woody plants escape fire are either early height growth (the lanky strategy) or early bark growth (the corky strategy). We hypothesize that the dominance of each strategy in different savannas depends on the prevailing disturbance regimes. Given the importance of herbivory in afrotropical savanna, we expect woody plants in these savannas to be taller and have thinner barks (the lanky ...

 

Fire as an evolutionary pressure shaping plant traits

  
Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 16, No. 8. (August 2011), pp. 406-411, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2011.04.002

Abstract

Traits, such as resprouting, serotiny and germination by heat and smoke, are adaptive in fire-prone environments. However, plants are not adapted to fire per se but to fire regimes. Species can be threatened when humans alter the regime, often by increasing or decreasing fire frequency. Fire-adaptive traits are potentially the result of different evolutionary pathways. Distinguishing between traits that are adaptations originating in response to fire or exaptations originating in response to other factors might not always be possible. However, fire ...

 

Little evidence for fire-adapted plant traits in Mediterranean climate regions

  
Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 16, No. 2. (20 February 2011), pp. 69-76, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2010.10.007

Abstract

As climate change increases vegetation combustibility, humans are impacted by wildfires through loss of lives and property, leading to an increased emphasis on prescribed burning practices to reduce hazards. A key and pervading concept accepted by most environmental managers is that combustible ecosystems have traditionally burnt because plants are fire adapted. In this opinion article, we explore the concept of plant traits adapted to fire in Mediterranean climates. In the light of major threats to biodiversity conservation, we recommend caution in ...

 

At the nexus of fire, water and society

  
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 371, No. 1696. (23 May 2016), 20150172, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0172

Abstract

The societal risks of water scarcity and water-quality impairment have received considerable attention, evidenced by recent analyses of these topics by the 2030 Water Resources Group, the United Nations and the World Economic Forum. What are the effects of fire on the predicted water scarcity and declines in water quality? Drinking water supplies for humans, the emphasis of this exploration, are derived from several land cover types, including forests, grasslands and peatlands, which are vulnerable to fire. In the last two ...

 

Viewing forests through the lens of complex systems science

  
Ecosphere, Vol. 5, No. 1. (January 2014), art1, https://doi.org/10.1890/es13-00182.1

Abstract

Complex systems science provides a transdisciplinary framework to study systems characterized by (1) heterogeneity, (2) hierarchy, (3) self-organization, (4) openness, (5) adaptation, (6) memory, (7) non-linearity, and (8) uncertainty. Complex systems thinking has inspired both theory and applied strategies for improving ecosystem resilience and adaptability, but applications in forest ecology and management are just beginning to emerge. We review the properties of complex systems using four well-studied forest biomes (temperate, boreal, tropical and Mediterranean) as examples. The lens of complex systems ...

 

Climate change, climate variability and transportation

  
Procedia Environmental Sciences, Vol. 1 (2010), pp. 130-145, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2010.09.010

Abstract

The contribution of the transport systems, including road, air and sea, are making to climate change through the emission of greenhouse (GHG) gases, and new technologies and programmes of action to mitigate their impact on climate is reviewed. The actitivites of the transport systems in most countries are sensitive to a range of weather extremes, including those related to precipitation, thunderstorms, temperature, winds, visibility and sea level. The impact of climate, climate variability and climate change, in particular the impact of ...

 

Climate change, habitat loss, protected areas and the climate adaptation potential of species in Mediterranean ecosystems worldwide

  
PLOS ONE, Vol. 4, No. 7. (29 July 2009), e6392, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006392

Abstract

Mediterranean climate is found on five continents and supports five global biodiversity hotspots. Based on combined downscaled results from 23 atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) for three emissions scenarios, we determined the projected spatial shifts in the mediterranean climate extent (MCE) over the next century. Although most AOGCMs project a moderate expansion in the global MCE, regional impacts are large and uneven. The median AOGCM simulation output for the three emissions scenarios project the MCE at the end of the 21st ...

 

Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations

  
Evolutionary Applications, Vol. 1, No. 1. (1 February 2008), pp. 95-111, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2007.00013.x

Abstract

Species distribution models predict a wholesale redistribution of trees in the next century, yet migratory responses necessary to spatially track climates far exceed maximum post-glacial rates. The extent to which populations will adapt will depend upon phenotypic variation, strength of selection, fecundity, interspecific competition, and biotic interactions. Populations of temperate and boreal trees show moderate to strong clines in phenology and growth along temperature gradients, indicating substantial local adaptation. Traits involved in local adaptation appear to be the product of small ...

 

Landscape - wildfire interactions in southern Europe: Implications for landscape management

  
Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 92, No. 10. (October 2011), pp. 2389-2402, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.06.028

Abstract

[Abstract] Every year approximately half a million hectares of land are burned by wildfires in southern Europe, causing large ecological and socio-economic impacts. Climate and land use changes in the last decades have increased fire risk and danger. In this paper we review the available scientific knowledge on the relationships between landscape and wildfires in the Mediterranean region, with a focus on its application for defining landscape management guidelines and policies that could be adopted in order to promote landscapes with ...

 

Introduced or native tree species to maintain forest ecosystem services in a hotter and drier future?

  
In Introduced tree species in European forests: opportunities and challenges (2016), pp. 236-246

Abstract

[Excerpt] Climate change might profoundly alter patterns and processes in forest ecosystems that have consequences on the biogeochemical cycling, biodiversity and productivity (e.g. Lindner et al. 2014). Temperature- and drought-related changes have been identified as important triggers of forest decline and vegetation shifts worldwide (Allen et al. 2010). In Europe, several native tree species such as Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) are showing increased sensitivities to recent increases in temperature and extreme droughts resulting ...

References

  1. Allen, C.D., Macalady, A., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Gonzales, P., Hogg, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D.D., Fensham, R., Zhang, Z., Kitzberger, T., Lim, J.-H., Castro, J., Allard, G., Running, S.W., Semerci, A., Cobb, N., 2010. A global overview of drought and heat-induced mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. Forest Ecology and Management 259, 660–684. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.09.001 .
  2. Allen, C.D., Breshears, D.D., McDowell, N.G., 2015. On underestimation of global vulnerability
 

Climate change impacts and adaptation in forest management: a review

  
Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 72, No. 2. (2015), pp. 145-167, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13595-014-0446-5

Abstract

[Key message] Adaptation of forest management to climate change requires an understanding of the effects of climate on forests, industries and communities; prediction of how these effects might change over time; and incorporation of this knowledge into management decisions. This requires multiple forms of knowledge and new approaches to forest management decisions. Partnerships that integrate researchers from multiple disciplines with forest managers and local actors can build a shared understanding of future challenges and facilitate improved decision making in the face of ...

 

Health impacts of wildfires

  

Abstract

[Introduction] Wildfires are common globally. Although there has been considerable work done on the health effects of wildfires in countries such as the USA where they occur frequently there has been relatively little work to investigate health effects in the United Kingdom. Climate change may increase the risk of increasing wildfire frequency, therefore there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. This study was designed to review current evidence about the health effects of ...

 

Adapting to climate change

  
In Climate Change and United States Forests, Vol. 57 (2014), pp. 183-222, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7515-2_8

Abstract

Federal agencies have led the development of adaptation principles and tools in forest ecosystems over the past decade. Successful adaptation efforts generally require organizations to: (1) develop science-management partnerships, (2) provide education on climate change science, (3) provide a toolkit of methods and processes for vulnerability assessment and adaptation, (4) use multiple models to generate projections of climate change effects, (5) incorporate risk and uncertainty, (6) integrate with multiple management objectives, (7) prioritize no-regrets decision making, (8) support flexibility and adaptive ...

 

Europe

  
In Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability - Part B: regional aspects - Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2014), pp. 1267-1326

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive Summary] [::] Observed climate trends and future climate projections show regionally varying changes in temperature and rainfall in Europe (high confidence), 23.2.2 in agreement with Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) findings, with projected increases in temperature throughout Europe and increasing precipitation in Northern Europe and decreasing precipitation in Southern Europe. 23.2.2.2 Climate projections show a marked increase in high temperature extremes (high confidence), meteorological droughts (medium confidence), 23.2.3 and heavy precipitation events (high confidence), 23.2.2.3 with variations across Europe, and small or no changes ...

 

Landscape genomics and a common garden trial reveal adaptive differentiation to temperature across Europe in the tree species Alnus glutinosa

  
Molecular Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 19. (1 October 2014), pp. 4709-4721, https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.12813

Abstract

The adaptive potential of tree species to cope with climate change has important ecological and economic implications. Many temperate tree species experience a wide range of environmental conditions, suggesting high adaptability to new environmental conditions. We investigated adaptation to regional climate in the drought-sensitive tree species Alnus glutinosa (Black alder), using a complementary approach that integrates genomic, phenotypic and landscape data. A total of 24 European populations were studied in a common garden and through landscape genomic approaches. Genotyping-by-sequencing was used ...

 

Smallholder farmers' perceptions of climate change and the roles of trees and agroforestry in climate risk adaptation: evidence from Bohol, Philippines

  
Agroforestry Systems, Vol. 90, No. 3. (2016), pp. 521-540, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-015-9874-y

Abstract

Recent studies have highlighted the importance of trees and agroforestry in climate change adaptation and mitigation. This paper analyzes how farmers, members of their households, and community leaders in the Wahig–Inabanga watershed, Bohol province in the Philippines perceive of climate change, and define and value the roles of trees in coping with climate risks. Focus group discussions revealed that farmers and community leaders had observed changes in rainfall and temperature over the years. They also had positive perceptions of tree roles ...

 

Range expansions transition from pulled to pushed waves as growth becomes more cooperative in an experimental microbial population

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 25. (21 June 2016), pp. 6922-6927, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1521056113

Abstract

[Significance] Species undergo range shifts in response to changing climate or following an introduction to a new environment. Invasions often incur significant economic cost and threaten biodiversity. Ecological theory predicts two distinct types of expansion waves, pulled and pushed, depending on the degree of cooperativity in the population. Although pulled and pushed invasions differ dramatically in how population-level properties such as the expansion rate depend on the organism-level properties such as rates of growth and dispersal, these theoretical predictions have not been ...

 

Climate change impacts on global food security

  
Science, Vol. 341, No. 6145. (2013), pp. 508-513, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1239402

Abstract

Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. The stability of whole food systems may be at risk under climate change because of short-term variability in supply. However, the potential impact is less clear at regional scales, but it is likely that climate variability and change will exacerbate food insecurity in areas currently vulnerable ...

 

Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat

  
Science, Vol. 323, No. 5911. (2009), pp. 240-244, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1164363

Abstract

Higher growing season temperatures can have dramatic impacts on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security. We used observational data and output from 23 global climate models to show a high probability (>90%) that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006. In temperate regions, the hottest seasons on record will represent the future norm in many locations. We used historical examples ...

 

Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030

  
Science, Vol. 319, No. 5863. (2008), pp. 607-610, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1152339

Abstract

Investments aimed at improving agricultural adaptation to climate change inevitably favor some crops and regions over others. An analysis of climate risks for crops in 12 food-insecure regions was conducted to identify adaptation priorities, based on statistical crop models and climate projections for 2030 from 20 general circulation models. Results indicate South Asia and Southern Africa as two regions that, without sufficient adaptation measures, will likely suffer negative impacts on several crops that are important to large food-insecure human populations. We ...

 

Insurance in a climate of change

  
Science, Vol. 309, No. 5737. (2005), pp. 1040-1044, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1112121

Abstract

Catastrophe insurance provides peace of mind and financial security. Climate change can have adverse impacts on insurance affordability and availability, potentially slowing the growth of the industry and shifting more of the burden to governments and individuals. Most forms of insurance are vulnerable, including property, liability, health, and life. It is incumbent on insurers, their regulators, and the policy community to develop a better grasp of the physical and business risks. Insurers are well positioned to participate in public-private initiatives to ...

 

Green paper on forest protection and information in the EU: preparing forests for climate change

  
COM Documents, Vol. 2010, No. COM/2010/0066 final. (1 March 2010)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] The purpose of this Green Paper is to launch the debate on options for a European Union (EU) approach to forest protection and information in the framework of the EU Forest Action Plan, as announced by the Commission in the White Paper "Adapting to Climate Change: towards a European Framework for action"[1]. The Council conclusions of 25 June 2009 on this White Paper underlined that climate change has had and will have an impact, inter alia, on forests. As these ...

 

Commission staff working document - impact assessment, Part 1 accompanying the document: Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - An EU strategy on adaptation to climate change

  
Commission Staff Working Document, Vol. 2013, No. SWD/2013/0132 final. (16 April 2013)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Climate change and the need for adaptation] The increase in global surface temperature is the most obvious aspect of anthropogenic climate change. The average temperature for the European land area for the last decade (2002-2011) is 1.3°C above the preindustrial average, which makes the increase over Europe faster than the global average. Moreover, significant economic losses[6] and human fatalities associated with extreme weather events, such as heat waves, droughts and heavy precipitation, have been registered. [\n] Climate change will continue for ...

 

Climate change and European forests: what do we know, what are the uncertainties, and what are the implications for forest management?

  
Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 146 (2014), pp. 69-83, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.07.030

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Uncertainty is inherent to climate change impact assessments. [::] Extreme events are only weakly represented in many assessments. [::] The range of possible impacts has so far been underestimated in most studies. [::] Some general trends are common to all climate projections. [::] Guidance is needed to interpret state-of-the-art knowledge and give helpful advice. [Abstract] The knowledge about potential climate change impacts on forests is continuously expanding and some changes in growth, drought induced mortality and species distribution have been observed. However despite a significant body ...

 

Climate change increases the drought risk in Central European forests: what are the options for adaptation?

  
Forestry Journal, Vol. 60, No. 1. (1 January 2014), https://doi.org/10.2478/forj-2014-0001

Abstract

The paper presents information on the projected drought exposure of Central Europe, describes the anticipated dynamics of the regional forests, and identifies measures facilitating the adaptation of forests to climate change-induced drought risk. On the basis of an ensemble of climate change scenarios we expect substantial drying in southern Slovakia and Hungary, while such trends were found to be less pronounced for the Czech Republic and Austria. In response to these climate trajectories, a change in species composition towards a higher ...

 

Reframing ecosystem management in the era of climate change: issues and knowledge from forests

  
Biological Conservation, Vol. 165 (September 2013), pp. 115-127, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.05.020

Abstract

We discuss “ecosystem management (EM)” to face contemporary climate change issues. EM focuses on sustaining ecosystems to meet both ecological and human needs. EM plans have been largely developed independent of concerns about climate change. However, EM is potentially effective for climate change mitigation and adaptation. We provide the principle guidelines based on EM to adaptively tackle the issues. Climate change is one of the significant concerns in land and resource management, creating an urgent need to build social–ecological capacity to ...

 

Climate change and forests of the future: managing in the face of uncertainty

  
Ecological Applications, Vol. 17, No. 8. (December 2007), pp. 2145-2151, https://doi.org/10.1890/06-1715.1

Abstract

We offer a conceptual framework for managing forested ecosystems under an assumption that future environments will be different from present but that we cannot be certain about the specifics of change. We encourage flexible approaches that promote reversible and incremental steps, and that favor ongoing learning and capacity to modify direction as situations change. We suggest that no single solution fits all future challenges, especially in the context of changing climates, and that the best strategy is to mix different approaches ...

 

Uniform drought and warming responses in Pinus nigra provenances despite specific overall performances

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 270 (April 2012), pp. 200-208, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.01.034

Abstract

Climate extremes are expected to increase in frequency and magnitude as a consequence of global warming, threatening the functioning, services and goods of forest ecosystems. The introduction of species from drier and warmer climates is one option that is discussed to adapt forest ecosystems to these adverse effects of climate change. The (sub)-mediterranean Pinus nigra is a potential candidate for such assisted migration, especially for dry sites in Central Europe. The high genetic diversity within this species and thus the potential ...

 

Tackle climate change in Europe

  
In MEPs' Action Plans for a One Planet Europe (2014)

Abstract

[Excerpt] In order to give certainty to investors and a clear position for international negotiations, the EU is developing a new framework of climate and energy laws for 2030. The recent European Parliament own-initiative report on the 2030 climate and energy targets goes further than the agreement reached by the European Council. A major weakness of the Commission’s assessment of the impact of decarbonisation is that it considers only costs, and fail to account for the benefits of climate and energy policies. WWF believes it is not ...

References

  1. DG for Climate Action, 2013. Special Eurobarometer 409 - Climate change. (pp.45-48). TNS Opinion and Social, European Commission, Brussels. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb_special_419_400_en.htm#409
  2. European Commission, 2014. Commission staff working document impact assessment: Accompanying the document Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions A policy framework for climate and energy in the period from 2020 up to 2030. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:52014SC0015
 

Temperate forest health in an era of emerging megadisturbance

  
Science, Vol. 349, No. 6250. (21 August 2015), pp. 823-826, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa9933

Abstract

Although disturbances such as fire and native insects can contribute to natural dynamics of forest health, exceptional droughts, directly and in combination with other disturbance factors, are pushing some temperate forests beyond thresholds of sustainability. Interactions from increasing temperatures, drought, native insects and pathogens, and uncharacteristically severe wildfire are resulting in forest mortality beyond the levels of 20th-century experience. Additional anthropogenic stressors, such as atmospheric pollution and invasive species, further weaken trees in some regions. Although continuing climate change will likely ...

Visual summary

 

Boreal forest health and global change

  
Science, Vol. 349, No. 6250. (21 August 2015), pp. 819-822, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa9092

Abstract

The boreal forest, one of the largest biomes on Earth, provides ecosystem services that benefit society at levels ranging from local to global. Currently, about two-thirds of the area covered by this biome is under some form of management, mostly for wood production. Services such as climate regulation are also provided by both the unmanaged and managed boreal forests. Although most of the boreal forests have retained the resilience to cope with current disturbances, projected environmental changes of unprecedented speed and ...

 

Walnut demonstrates strong genetic variability for adaptive and wood quality traits in a network of juvenile field tests across Europe

  
New Forests In New Forests, Vol. 25, No. 3. (2003), pp. 211-225, https://doi.org/10.1023/a%3a1022939609548

Abstract

Adaptive and wood quality trait data were collected and analyzed on commercially available Juglans regia and J. regia×J. nigra provenances and progenies planted across Europe in a multi-site network. A total of 19 seed sources, replicated 35 times per site, were planted at 13 sites from 5 European countries, encompassing the potential distribution area of timber production plantation sites. The following traits were evaluated: survival, height, diameter at breast height, stem form, apical dominance, vegetative budbreak, along with biotic and abiotic ...

 

European briefings - Climate change impacts and adaptation

  
In SOER 2015 - The European environment - state and outlook 2015 (18 February 2015)

Abstract

Global climate change impacts Europe in many ways, including: changes in average and extreme temperature and precipitation, warmer oceans, rising sea level and shrinking snow and ice cover on land and at sea. These have led to a range of impacts on ecosystems, socio-economic sectors and human health. Adaptation to the observed and projected impacts in coming decades is needed, complementary to global climate mitigation actions. The EU strategy on adaptation to climate change supports national adaptation strategies and other actions in ...

References

  1. European Environment Agency, 2012. Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2012 - An indicator-based report. EEA Report No 12/2012, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  2. IPCC, 2013. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., et al. (eds)., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
 

Land transport systems under climate change: a macroeconomic assessment of adaptation measures for the case of Austria

  
No. GEP 2015-01. (2015)

Abstract

In the light of climate change, transport systems become increasingly stressed by extreme weather and gradual climatic changes, resulting in direct costs which arise in the affected sector as well as indirect costs due to economic spill-over effects. To attenuate these costs, sector specific adaptation measures are needed, raising the question of the net-benefits of adaptation at a macroeconomic level. However, despite their importance such assessments of impacts and adaptation at the macro-level are scarce and coarse in their implementation. This ...

References

  1. Aaheim, A., Amundsen, H., Dokken, T., Wei, T., 2012. Impacts and adaptation to climate change in European economies. Global Environmental Change 22, 959–968.
  2. Aaheim, A., Gopalakrishnan, R., Chaturvedi, R.K., Ravindranath, N.H., Sagadevan, A.D., Sharma, N., Wei, T., 2011. A macroeconomic analysis of adaptation to climate change impacts on forests in India. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 16, 229–245. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-010-9266-6
  3. Abrell, J., 2010. Regulating CO2 emissions of transportation in Europe:
 

Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability - Part B: regional aspects - Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  
(2014)

Abstract

Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability is the second volume of the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) — Climate Change 2013/2014— and was prepared by its Working Group II. The volume focuses on why climate change matters and is organized into two parts, devoted respectively to human and natural systems and regional aspects, incorporating results from the reports of Working Groups I and III. The volume addresses impacts that have already occurred and ...

 

Evolutionary tipping points in the capacity to adapt to environmental change

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 1. (06 January 2015), pp. 184-189, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1408589111

Abstract

[Significance] Environmental variation is becoming more frequent and unpredictable as a consequence of climate change, yet we currently lack the tools to evaluate the extent to which organisms may adapt to this phenomenon. Here we develop a model that explores these issues and use it to study how changes in the timescale and predictability of environmental variation may ultimately affect population viability. Our model indicates that, although populations can often cope with fairly large changes in these environmental parameters, on occasion they ...

Visual summary

  • Figure:65%: http://www.pnas.org/content/112/1/184/F2.large.jpg
  • Source: http://www.pnas.org/content/112/1/184/F2.expansion.html
  • Caption: Evolutionary response to environmental variation under different levels of predictability (P) and relative timescale of environmental variation (R). At each parameter combination in A, the 100 mean population reaction norms that evolved at generation 50,000 in different replicate simulations are depicted [...] with environmental cues on the x axis and the resulting insulation phenotypes on the
 

Macroeconomic impacts of regional climate change adaptation strategies

  
In 14th IAEE European Energy Conference - Sustainable Energy Policy and Strategies for Europe (October 2014)

Abstract

[Overview] Among great efforts of mitigating anthropogenic climate change in past and present, adaptation to global climate change has received growing attention lately. Adaptation comprises measures, like seawalls and storm surge, erosion control, transport infrastructure enhancement, underground cabling and many more. They are necessary to deal with expected climate change impacts, such as floods, storms and heat and their associated economic, environmental and social costs. Whereas climate change mitigation is a global issue, most adaptation measures are implemented at the regional or local level due to varying ...

References

  1. Bosello, F., Carraro, C., de Cian, E., 2010. Climate policy and the optimal balance between mitigation, adaptation and unavoided damage. In: Climate Change Economics 1 (2), 71–92.
  2. Ciscar, J.-C., Szabó, L., Regemorter, D., Soria, A., 2012. The integration of PESETA sectoral economic impacts into the GEM-E3 Europe model: methodology and results. In: Climatic Change 112 (1), 127-142.
  3. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2014. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability
 

Universal education is key to enhanced climate adaptation

  
Science, Vol. 346, No. 6213. (28 November 2014), pp. 1061-1062, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1257975

Abstract

Over the coming years, enormous amounts of money will likely be spent on adaptation to climate change. The international community recently made pledges of up to $100 billion per year by 2020 for the Green Climate Fund. Judging from such climate finance to date, funding for large projects overwhelmingly goes to engineers to build seawalls, dams, or irrigation systems (1). But with specific projections of future changes in climate in specific locations still highly uncertain, such heavy concrete (in both meanings) ...

 

Replacing coniferous monocultures with mixed-species production stands: an assessment of the potential benefits for forest biodiversity in northern Europe

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 260, No. 6. (15 August 2010), pp. 939-947, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.06.011

Abstract

Conifer dominated plantations in central and northern Europe are associated with relatively low ecological values, and in some cases, may be vulnerable to disturbances caused by anthropogenic climate change. This has prompted the consideration of alternative tree species compositions for use in production forestry in this region. Here we evaluate the likely biodiversity costs and benefits of supplanting Norway spruce ( Picea abies ) monocultures with polycultures of spruce and birch ( Betula spp.) in southern Sweden. This polyculture alternative has ...

 

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Innovating for Sustainable Growth: A Bioeconomy for Europe

  
No. COM(2012) 60 final. (2012)

Abstract

[Excerpt] A bioeconomy strategy for Europe In order to cope with an increasing global population, rapid depletion of many resources, increasing environmental pressures and climate change, Europe needs to radically change its approach to production, consumption, processing, storage, recycling and disposal of biological resources. The Europe 2020 Strategy calls for a bioeconomy as a key element for smart and green growth in Europe. Advancements in bioeconomy research and innovation uptake will allow Europe to improve the management of its renewable biological ...

 

Forest fires and adaptation options in Europe

  
Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 16, No. 1. (2016), pp. 21-30, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-014-0621-0

Abstract

This paper presents a quantitative assessment of adaptation options in the context of forest fires in Europe under projected climate change. A standalone fire model (SFM) based on a state-of-the-art large-scale forest fire modelling algorithm is used to explore fuel removal through prescribed burnings and improved fire suppression as adaptation options. The climate change projections are provided by three climate models reflecting the SRES A2 scenario. The SFM’s modelled burned areas for selected test countries in Europe show satisfying agreement with ...

 

Climate change and forest diseases

  
Plant Pathology, Vol. 60, No. 1. (1 February 2011), pp. 133-149, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02406.x
Keywords: abies-nephrolepis   adaptation   alnus-incana   armillaria-spp   betula-spp   biscogniauxia-atropunctata   biscogniauxia-mediterranea   botryosphaeria-spp   bursaphelenchus-xylophilus   chamaecyparis-nootkatensis   climate-change   cronartium-ribicola   cylindrocladium-quinqueseptatum   dendroctonus-ponderosae   dothistroma-pini   dothistroma-septosporum   forest-management   forest-pests   forest-resources   fusarium-circinatum   ips-confusus   larix-gmelinii   larix-kaempferi   larix-spp   notholithocarpus-densiflorus   phaeocryptopus-gaeumannii   phytophthora-cinnamomi   phytophthora-ramorum   picea-jazoensis   picea-spp   pinus-albicaulis   pinus-contorta   pinus-edulis   pinus-monticola   pinus-nigra   pinus-radiata   pinus-spp   pinus-strobus   plant-diseases   populus-tremuloides   pseudotsuga-menziesii   quercus-agrifolia   quercus-cerris   quercus-falcata   quercus-rubra   quercus-suber   resilience   septoria-musiva   sphaeropsis-sapinea   tree-diseases   tsuga-heterophylla   tsuga-spp   valsa-melanodiscus  

Abstract

As climate changes, the effects of forest diseases on forest ecosystems will change. We review knowledge of relationships between climate variables and several forest diseases, as well as current evidence of how climate, host and pathogen interactions are responding or might respond to climate change. Many forests can be managed to both adapt to climate change and minimize the undesirable effects of expected increases in tree mortality. We discuss four types of forest and disease management tactics – monitoring, forecasting, planning ...

 

Impacts of climate change on European forests and options for adaptation

  
(2008)

Abstract

[Excerpt] This study compiles and summarizes the existing knowledge about observed and projected impacts of climate change on forests in Europe and reviews options for forests and forestry to adapt to climate change. It has been commissioned by the Directorate General for Agriculture and Rural Development of the European Commission as an initial exploration of this complex issue. Forests are particularly sensitive to climate change, because the long life-span of trees does not allow for rapid adaptation to environmental changes. Adaptation ...

 

Climate change impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability of European forest ecosystems

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 259, No. 4. (16 February 2010), pp. 698-709, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.09.023

Abstract

This study compiles and summarizes the existing knowledge about observed and projected impacts of climate change on forests in Europe. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased variability with greater risk of extreme weather events, such as prolonged drought, storms and floods. Sensitivity, potential impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability to climate change are reviewed for European forests. The most important potential impacts of climate change on forest goods and services are ...

 

What limits evaporation from Mediterranean oak woodlands – The supply of moisture in the soil, physiological control by plants or the demand by the atmosphere?

  
Advances in Water Resources, Vol. 30, No. 10. (October 2007), pp. 2113-2122, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2006.06.013

Abstract

The prediction of evaporation from Mediterranean woodland ecosystems is complicated by an array of climate, soil and plant factors. To provide a mechanistic and process-oriented understanding, we evaluate theoretical and experimental information on water loss of Mediterranean oaks at three scales, the leaf, tree and woodland. We use this knowledge to address: what limits evaporation from Mediterranean oak woodlands – the supply of moisture in the soil, physiological control by plants or the demand by the atmosphere? The Mediterranean climate is highly ...

 

The drama of uncertainty

  
Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 100, No. 1. (1 May 2010), pp. 77-85, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-010-9841-6

Abstract

[Excerpt] Concluding remarks. We do not have consensus among stakeholders/decision makers, climate scientists, and social scientists on the relative importance of reducing uncertainty about future regional climate change for decision making. And we may never have such consensus. In this regard we are faced with an instance of meta-deep uncertainty. While it makes sense that there may be different perspectives on this issue based on what aspect of regional adaptation to climate change one is considering, it is also clear that perspectives are still too far apart. ...

 

Earth systems: Model human adaptation to climate change

  
Nature, Vol. 512, No. 7515. (27 August 2014), pp. 365-366, https://doi.org/10.1038/512365a

Abstract

[Excerpt] We can no longer ignore feedbacks between global warming and how people respond, say Paul I. Palmer and Matthew J. Smith. Current models of Earth's climate capture physical and biophysical processes. But the planet has entered a new state: humans are adapting to, as well as causing, environmental changes. This major feedback must be modelled. Projections of the future climate based on simple economic narratives1 — from cuts in greenhouse-gas emissions to unmitigated growth — are unrealistic. Faced with droughts ...

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