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Selection: Jackson:RB [11 articles] 

Publications by author Jackson:RB.
 

Warning signs for stabilizing global CO 2 emissions

  
Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 12, No. 11. (01 November 2017), 110202, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa9662

Abstract

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels and industry comprise ~90% of all CO2 emissions from human activities. For the last three years, such emissions were stable, despite continuing growth in the global economy. Many positive trends contributed to this unique hiatus, including reduced coal use in China and elsewhere, continuing gains in energy efficiency, and a boom in low-carbon renewables such as wind and solar. However, the temporary hiatus appears to have ended in 2017. For 2017, we project emissions ...

 

Global carbon budget 2017

  
Earth System Science Data Discussions (13 November 2017), pp. 1-79, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-123

Abstract

Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the "global carbon budget" – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production ...

 

Towards real-time verification of CO2 emissions

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 12. (13 November 2017), pp. 848-850, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-017-0013-9

Abstract

The Paris Agreement has increased the incentive to verify reported anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions with independent Earth system observations. Reliable verification requires a step change in our understanding of carbon cycle variability. [\n] Emissions of CO2 from fossil fuels and industry did not change from 2014 to 2016, yet there was a record increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. This apparent inconsistency is explained by the response of the natural carbon cycle to the 2015–2016 El Niño event, but it raises ...

 

Hydrologic regulation of plant rooting depth

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 40. (03 October 2017), pp. 10572-10577, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1712381114

Abstract

[Significance] Knowledge of plant rooting depth is critical to understanding plant-mediated global change. Earth system models are highly sensitive to this particular parameter with large consequences for modeled plant productivity, water–energy–carbon exchange between the land and the atmosphere, and silicate weathering regulating multimillion-year-timescale carbon cycle. However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. Accidental discoveries of >70-m-deep roots in wells and >20-m-deep roots in caves offer glimpses of the enormous plasticity of root response to its environment, but the ...

 

The global methane budget 2000–2012

  
Earth System Science Data, Vol. 8, No. 2. (12 December 2016), pp. 697-751, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-8-697-2016

Abstract

The global methane (CH4) budget is becoming an increasingly important component for managing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. This relevance, due to a shorter atmospheric lifetime and a stronger warming potential than carbon dioxide, is challenged by the still unexplained changes of atmospheric CH4 over the past decade. Emissions and concentrations of CH4 are continuing to increase, making CH4 the second most important human-induced greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Two major difficulties in reducing uncertainties come from the large variety ...

 

Trading water for carbon with biological carbon sequestration

  
Science, Vol. 310, No. 5756. (2005), pp. 1944-1947, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1119282

Abstract

Carbon sequestration strategies highlight tree plantations without considering their full environmental consequences. We combined field research, synthesis of more than 600 observations, and climate and economic modeling to document substantial losses in stream flow, and increased soil salinization and acidification, with afforestation. Plantations decreased stream flow by 227 millimeters per year globally (52%), with 13% of streams drying completely for at least 1 year. Regional modeling of U.S. plantation scenarios suggests that climate feedbacks are unlikely to offset such water losses ...

 

The structure, distribution, and biomass of the world's forests

  
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 44, No. 1. (2013), pp. 593-622, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110512-135914

Abstract

Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. We review the environmental factors controlling their structure and global distribution and evaluate their current and future trajectory. Adaptations of trees to climate and resource gradients, coupled with disturbances and forest dynamics, create complex geographical patterns in forest assemblages and structures. These patterns are increasingly discernible through new satellite and airborne observation systems, improved forest inventories, and global ecosystem models. Forest biomass is a complex property affected by forest distribution, structure, and ecological ...

 

Global Biodiversity Scenarios for the Year 2100

  
Science, Vol. 287, No. 5459. (10 March 2000), pp. 1770-1774, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5459.1770

Abstract

Scenarios of changes in biodiversity for the year 2100 can now be developed based on scenarios of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, vegetation, and land use and the known sensitivity of biodiversity to these changes. This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, a ranking of the biomes with respect to expected changes, and the major sources of uncertainties. For terrestrial ecosystems, land-use change probably will have the largest effect, followed by climate change, nitrogen deposition, ...

 

Interactions of the carbon cycle, human activity, and the climate system: a research portfolio

  
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Vol. 2, No. 4. (October 2010), pp. 301-311, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2010.08.003

Abstract

There has never been a greater need for delivering timely and policy-relevant information on the magnitude and evolution of the human-disturbed carbon cycle. In this paper, we present the main thematic areas of an ongoing global research agenda and prioritize future needs based on relevance for the evolution of the carbon–climate–human system. These include firstly, the delivery of routine updates of global and regional carbon budgets, including its attribution of variability and trends to underlying drivers; secondly, the assessment of the ...

 

A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World’s Forests

  
Science, Vol. 333, No. 6045. (19 August 2011), pp. 988-993, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1201609

Abstract

The terrestrial carbon sink has been large in recent decades, but its size and location remain uncertain. Using forest inventory data and long-term ecosystem carbon studies, we estimate a total forest sink of 2.4 ± 0.4 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C year–1) globally for 1990 to 2007. We also estimate a source of 1.3 ± 0.7 Pg C year–1 from tropical land-use change, consisting of a gross tropical deforestation emission of 2.9 ± 0.5 Pg C year–1 partially compensated ...

 

Effects of afforestation on water yield: a global synthesis with implications for policy

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 11, No. 10. (October 2005), pp. 1565-1576, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.01011.x

Abstract

Carbon sequestration programs, including afforestation and reforestation, are gaining attention globally and will alter many ecosystem processes, including water yield. Some previous analyses have addressed deforestation and water yield, while the effects of afforestation on water yield have been considered for some regions. However, to our knowledge no systematic global analysis of the effects of afforestation on water yield has been undertaken. To assess and predict these effects globally, we analyzed 26 catchment data sets with 504 observations, including annual runoff ...

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