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Selection: Ehrlich:PR [6 articles] 

Publications by author Ehrlich:PR.
 

Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 30. (25 July 2017), pp. E6089-E6096, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1704949114

Abstract

[Significance] The strong focus on species extinctions, a critical aspect of the contemporary pulse of biological extinction, leads to a common misimpression that Earth’s biota is not immediately threatened, just slowly entering an episode of major biodiversity loss. This view overlooks the current trends of population declines and extinctions. Using a sample of 27,600 terrestrial vertebrate species, and a more detailed analysis of 177 mammal species, we show the extremely high degree of population decay in vertebrates, even in common “species of ...

 

Habitat destruction: death by a thousand cuts

  
In Conservation Biology for All (01 January 2010), pp. 73-87, https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199554232.003.0005

Abstract

[Excerpt] Humankind has dramatically transformed much of the Earth’s surface and its natural ecosystems. This process is not new—it has been ongoing for millennia—but it has accelerated sharply over the last two centuries, and especially in the last several decades. [\n] Today, the loss and degradation of natural habitats can be likened to a war of attrition. Many natural ecosystems are being progressively razed, bulldozed, and felled by axes or chainsaws, until only small scraps of their original extent survive. Forests have been hit especially hard: the global area of forests has been reduced ...

 

Extinction, Substitution, and Ecosystem Services

  
BioScience, Vol. 33, No. 4. (01 April 1983), pp. 248-254, https://doi.org/10.2307/1309037

Abstract

The loss of services to humanity following extinctions ranges from trivial to catastrophic, depending on the number of elements (populations, species, guilds) deleted and the degree of control each exerted in the system. Most attempts to substitute other organisms for those lost have been unsuccessful, to one degree or another, and prospects for increasing the success rate in the foreseeable future are not great. Attempts to supply the lost services by other means tend to be expensive failures in the long ...

 

Biodiversity studies: science and policy

  
Science, Vol. 253, No. 5021. (16 August 1991), pp. 758-762, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.253.5021.758

Abstract

Biodiversity studies comprise the systematic examination of the full array of different kinds of organisms together with the technology by which the diversity can be maintained and used for the benefit of humanity. Current basic research at the species level focuses on the process of species formation, the standing levels of species numbers in various higher taxonomic categories, and the phenomena of hyperdiversity and extinction proneness. The major practical concern is the massive extinction rate now caused by human activity, which ...

 

Accelerated modern human–induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction

  
Science Advances, Vol. 1, No. 5. (19 10:51:26 June 2015), https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1400253

Abstract

The oft-repeated claim that Earth’s biota is entering a sixth “mass extinction” depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the “background” rates prevailing in the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions ...

 

When agendas collide: human welfare and biological conservation

  
Conservation Biology, Vol. 21, No. 1. (February 2007), pp. 59-68, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00570.x

Abstract

Conservation should benefit ecosystems, nonhuman organisms, and current and future human beings. Nevertheless, tension among these goals engenders potential ethical conflicts: conservationists' true motivations may differ from the justifications they offer for their activities, and conservation projects have the potential to disempower and oppress people. We reviewed the promise and deficiencies of integrating social, economic, and biological concerns into conservation, focusing on research in ecosystem services and efforts in community-based conservation. Despite much progress, neither paradigm provides a silver bullet for ...

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