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Selection: Conedera:M [28 articles] 

Publications by author Conedera:M.
 

Forest fires in Europe, Middle East and North Africa 2016

  

Abstract

[Excerpt: Foreword] Forests, agricultural land and natural areas continue to burn, both within and outside Europe. Lives of European citizens are lost and endangered. By early September 2017, wildfires have already burnt nearly 700 000 ha of land in the EU; hence this season will most likely be remembered as one of the most devastating wildfire seasons in Europe since records began. Moreover, sadly this year’s fires have taken a huge toll of lives in Southern Europe. Extreme weather conditions such ...

 

Investigation of root reinforcement decay after a forest fire in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) protection forest

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 400 (September 2017), pp. 339-352, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.06.005

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Engineering resilience of Scots pine 4 years after forest fire has been quantified. [::] Spatial distribution of root reinforcement (RR) has been modeled. [::] RR decay by a factor of 3.6, 4 years after a stand replacing forest fire. [::] Natural regeneration has almost no root reinforcement 4 years after fire. [::] Decay of root mechanical properties determine most of RR loss. [Abstract] Natural disturbances may cause a temporary reduction or elimination of the protective effect of forests. The management of protection forests aims to influence ...

 

Post-fire spread of alien plant species in a mixed broad-leaved forest of the Insubric region

  
Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, Vol. 207, No. 1. (January 2012), pp. 19-29, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2011.07.016

Abstract

How do tree species regenerate and which ecological conditions are required after forest fire in the Insubric region of the Alps? Are indigenous stand-forming tree species resistant over the invasion of alien plant species after such a disturbance? We addressed these questions in a case study in the Swiss canton of Ticino. In April 2006, a surface fire with severe intensity burnt a forest area of 55 ha on a south-facing slope (400–800 m.a.s.l.). The dominant trees in the investigated area ...

 

Forest fires in Europe, Middle East and North Africa 2015

  

Abstract

This is the 16th issue of the EFFIS annual report on forest fires for the year 2015. This report is consolidated as highly appreciated documentation of the previous year's forest fires in Europe, Middle East and North Africa. In its different sections, the report includes information on the evolution of fire danger in the European and Mediterranean regions, the damage caused by fires and detailed description of the fire conditions during the 2015 fire campaign in the majority of countries in the EFFIS network The chapter ...

 

European atlas of forest tree species

  
Keywords: bioeconomy   chorology   classification   climate   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   data-heterogeneity   data-integration   data-uncertainty   disasters   disturbances   ecological-zones   ecology   ecosystem-services   europe   floods   forest-fires   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gis   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integration-techniques   knowledge-integration   landslides   mastrave-modelling-library   modelling-uncertainty   open-data   paleoecology   relative-distance-similarity   reproducible-research   review   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   semap   software-uncertainty   soil-erosion   soil-resources   species-distribution   tree-species   uncertainty   water-resources   windstorm  

Abstract

[Excerpt] The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is both ...

 

Forest fires in Europe, Middle East and North Africa 2014

  

Abstract

This is the 15th issue of the EFFIS annual report on forest fires for the year 2014. This report is consolidated as highly appreciated documentation of the previous year's forest fires in Europe, Middle East and North Africa. In its different sections, the report includes information on the evolution of fire danger in the European and Mediterranean regions, the damage caused by fires and detailed description of the fire conditions during the 2014 fire campaign in the majority of countries in the EFFIS network The ...

 

Distribution and economic potential of the Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in Europe

  
Ecologia Mediterranea, Vol. 30, No. 2. (2004), pp. 179-193

Abstract

No official and coherent data on the distribution of the European chestnut exist despite its wide range of distribution and the impor- tant economic role it has played in many countries. In 1997, in the framework of the COST action G4 “Multidisciplinary Chestnut Research”, quantitative and qualitative data on chestnut forests were collected, mostly from the National Forest Inventories, in order to provide as sound a picture as possible of this important European resource. A ...

 

Fire ecology north and south of the Alps since the last ice age

  
The Holocene, Vol. 15, No. 8. (01 December 2005), pp. 1214-1226, https://doi.org/10.1191/0959683605hl892rp

Abstract

Wildfires are very rare in central Europe, which is probably why fire effects on vegetation have been neglected by most central European ecologists and palaeoecologists. Presently, reconstructions of fire history and fire ecology are almost absent. We analysed sediment cores from lakes on the Swiss Plateau (Lobsigensee and Soppensee) for pollen and charcoal to investigate the relationship between vegetation and fire. Microscopic charcoal evidence suggests increasing regional fire frequencies during the Neolithic (7350-4150 cal. BP, 5400-2200 BC) and the subsequent prehistoric ...

 

Reviving extinct Mediterranean forest communities may improve ecosystem potential in a warmer future

  
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 13, No. 7. (2015), pp. 356-362, https://doi.org/10.1890/150027

Abstract

The Mediterranean Basin is the region of Europe most vulnerable to negative climate-change impacts, including forest decline, increased wildfire, and biodiversity loss. Because humans have affected Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, it is unclear whether the region’s native ecosystems were more resilient to climate change than current ecosystems, and whether they would provide sustainable management options if restored. We simulated vegetation with the LANDCLIM model, using present-day climate as well as future climate-change scenarios, in three representative areas that encompass a broad ...

 

MOBSTRAT – Timber MOBilisation STRATegies for Swiss forests A participatory and multi-criteria decision-making process to promote timber harvesting in the Ticino Canton

  
In Atti del IX Congresso Nazionale SISEF "Multifunzionalità degli ecosistemi forestali montani: sfide e opportunità per la ricerca e lo sviluppo" (2013)

Abstract

Due to global climate change and future energy challenges (peak oil and regional independence on energy supply), local and national policies worldwide promote an increase in the use of timber both in the building sector and for energy production purposes [1, 2, 3]. The MOBSTRAT project aims at understanding whether mobilising more timber is possible and which consequences it would bring. The project is based on a simulation of forest management scenarios applied to three case studies and stakeholder involvement using ...

 

A palaeoecological attempt to classify fire sensitivity of trees in the Southern Alps

  
The Holocene, Vol. 10, No. 5. (2000), pp. 565-574

Abstract

Using pollen percentages and charcoal influx to reconstruct the Holocene vegetation and fire history, we differentiate six possible responses of plants to fire of medium and high frequency: fire-intolerant, fire damaged, fire-sensitive, fire-indifferent, fire-enhanced and fire-adapted. The fire sensitivity of 17 pollen types, representing 20 woody species in the southern Alps, is validated by comparison with today's ecological studies of plant chronosequences. A surprising coincidence of species reaction to fire of medium frequency is character istic for completely different vegetation types, ...

 

Chestnut

  
In Fruit Breeding, Vol. 8 (2012), pp. 729-769, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0763-9_19

Abstract

The genus Castanea, chestnuts and chinkapins, belongs to the family Fagaceae, which includes other important timber producing genera such as Quercus and Fagus. The genus Castanea is divided into three geographically delimited sections with at least seven consistently recognized interfertile species: 4 species in Asia (C. mollissima, C. henryi, C. seguinii, and C. crenata), two or more species in North America (C. dentata, C. ozarkensis, and C. pumila) and one in Europe and Turkey (C. sativa). The two most important diseases ...

 

Post Cultural Dynamics in a Mixed Chestnut Coppice at its Ecological Border

  
Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 693 (2005), pp. 219-224

Abstract

Until the beginning of the last century, chestnut played an important role as a staple food and primary wood source. However, with the abandonment of rural activities, the management of chestnut forests was progressively left behind. Following the suspension of the traditional coppice management system (rotation periods of 10-25 years), natural intra- and inter-specific competition dynamics have become the driving force in stand evolution. This may lead to dramatic changes in both structure and species composition of the stands. The aim ...

 

Response of bat species to sylvo-pastoral abandonment

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 261, No. 3. (01 February 2011), pp. 789-798, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.12.010

Abstract

We assessed the effect of abandonment of sylvo-pastoral practices in chestnut orchards (Castanea sativa) on bats in southern Switzerland to determine practical recommendations for bat conservation. We compared bat species richness and foraging activities between traditionally managed and unmanaged chestnut orchards, testing the hypothesis that managed orchards provide better foraging opportunities and harbour more bat species. Echolocation calls of foraging bats were sampled simultaneously at paired sites of managed and unmanaged orchards using custom made recorders. Vegetation structure and aerial insect ...

 

Modelling the eco-cultural niche of giant chestnut trees: new insights into land use history in southern Switzerland through distribution analysis of a living heritage

  
Journal of Historical Geography, Vol. 38, No. 4. (October 2012), pp. 372-386, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhg.2012.01.018

Abstract

During the Middle Ages and the early modern period the cultivation of the chestnut tree became dominant in various mountain regions in Western Europe. Large numbers of giant chestnut trees have been reported throughout the continent that may be considered the living heritage of this period. In this paper we used a systematic inventory of giant chestnut trees in southern Switzerland for reconstructing the eco-cultural niche related to the long-term cultivation and conservation of such remarkable trees. To this purpose we ...

 

Quaternary refugia of the sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.): an extended palynological approach

  
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany In Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, Vol. 13, No. 3. (2004), pp. 145-160, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-004-0041-z

Abstract

Knowledge about the glacial refugia of the thermophilous European Castanea sativa Mill. (sweet chestnut) is still inadequate. Its original range of distribution has been masked by strong human impact. Moreover, under natural conditions the species was probably admixed with other taxa (such as Quercus, Fraxinus, Fagus, Tilia) and thus possibly represented by low percentages in pollen records. In this paper we try to overcome the difficulties related to the scarcity and irregularity of chestnut pollen records by considering 1471 sites and ...

 

Drought Sensitivity of Castanea sativa: Case Study of Summer 2003 in the Southern Alps

  
Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 866 (2003), pp. 297-302

Abstract

The post-cultural dynamics of abandoned chestnut stands and diseases, such as chestnut blight and ink-disease, have been recognized as major drivers of the natural withdrawal of the chestnut tree. Climate warming causing drought might interact with these dynamics and accelerate the disappearing of the chestnut tree from former cultivated sites. The summer of 2003 was by far the hottest on record in Switzerland. Several chestnut stands were damaged by a combination of the heat and a significant precipitation shortfall in the ...

 

History, Present Situation and Perspective of Chestnut Cultivation in Europe

  
Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 784 (2008), pp. 23-27

Abstract

This paper gives a short overview on the history of the chestnut cultivation in Europe: presumed quaternary refugia, origin of the chestnut cultivation, driving factors of its diffusion on a continental scale, causes of the decline and future perspective of the European chestnut culture. ...

 

Distribution and economic potential of the Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in Europe

  
Ecologia Mediterranea, Vol. 30, No. 2. (2004), pp. 179-193

Abstract

No official and coherent data on the distribution of the European chestnut exist despite its wide range of distribution and the impor-tant economic role it has played in many countries. In 1997, in the framework of the COST action G4 "Multidisciplinary Chestnut Research", quantitative and qualitative data on chestnutforests were collected mostlyfrom the National Forest Inventories, in order to provide as sound a picture as possible of this important European resource. A total of2.25 million hectares offtrest dominated by ches-tnut were ...

 

The cultivation of Castanea sativa (Mill.) in Europe, from its origin to its diffusion on a continental scale

  
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany In Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, Vol. 13, No. 3. (2004), pp. 161-179, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-004-0038-7

Abstract

The history of Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) cultivation since medieval times has been well described on the basis of the very rich documentation available. Far fewer attempts have been made to give a historical synthesis of the events that led to the cultivation of sweet chestnut in much earlier times. In this article we attempt to reconstruct this part of the European history of chestnut cultivation and its early diffusion by use of different sources of information, such as pollen studies, ...

 

Different post-culture dynamics in abandoned chestnut orchards

  
Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Vol. 76, No. 3. (2001), pp. 487-492

Abstract

Humans spread the sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) in Europe, thereby masking the original range of the species. They cultivated it as a monoculture in mainly two management regimes: coppice and orchard. In the absence of management the chestnut stands tend to be invaded by other tree species, giving way to post-cultural evolutionary dynamics. Comparison of aerial photographs from 1959/60 and 1995 indicates a clear general trend toward mixed and shaded forests and the existence of different evolutionary patterns of orchard ...

 

Temporal and spatial dynamic of stool uprooting in abandoned chestnut coppice forests

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 235, No. 1-3. (November 2006), pp. 88-95, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.08.008

Abstract

Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) coppice is a man-made forest type that has been managed for centuries in short rotations to rapidly produce woody biomass. These forests, which nowadays cover significant areas within Europe, experience a general neglect and are subsequently being abandoned. Most of them are now over-aged, very dense, and highly monotone. Little is known about their development. The increasing frequency of uprooting events of stools (i.e. a whole stump including the shoots that originated after coppicing), is raising concern ...

 

A palaeoecological attempt to classify fire sensitivity of trees in the southern Alps

  
The Holocene, Vol. 10, No. 5. (01 July 2000), pp. 565-574, https://doi.org/10.1191/095968300674242447

Abstract

Using pollen percentages and charcoal influx to reconstruct the Holocene vegetation and fire history, we differentiate six possible responses of plants to fire of medium and high frequency: fire-intolerant, fire damaged, fire-sensitive, fire-indifferent, fire-enhanced and fire-adapted. The fire sensitivity of 17 pollen types, representing 20 woody species in the southern Alps, is validated by comparison with today's ecological studies of plant chronosequences. A surprising coincidence of species reaction to fire of medium frequency is character istic for completely different vegetation types, ...

 

Forest fires in Europe, Middle East and North Africa 2011

  

Abstract

This is the 12th "Forest fires in Europe" report published by the European Commission. The area covered by the report has been enlarged to include also Middle East and North Africa countries, thus also the title of the report has been changed accordingly. The report contains a summary of the 2011 fire season in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa with official statistics of the number of fires and burned area compiled by the contributing countries. In addition to country ...

 

Forest Fires in Europe, Middle East and North Africa 2013

  

Abstract

This is the 14-th Forest Fires in Europe report published by the European Commission. The report contains a summary of the 2013 fire season in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa with official statistics on the number of fires and burnt areas compiled by the contributing countries. In addition to country reports with a summary of the 2013 fire season provided by the countries, the report Forest Fires in Europe, Middle East and North Africa informs about the latest developments ...

 

Forest fires in Europe, Middle East and North Africa 2012

  

Abstract

This is the 13th Forest Fires in Europe report published by the European Commission. The area covered by the report includes also Middle East and North Africa countries, thus the title has been changed accordingly. The report contains a summary of the 2012 fire season in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa with official statistics on the number of fires and burnt areas compiled by the contributing countries. In addition to country reports with a summary of the past fire ...

 

The past ecology of Abies alba provides new perspectives on future responses of silver fir forests to global warming

  
Ecological Monographs, Vol. 83, No. 4. (November 2013), pp. 419-439, https://doi.org/10.1890/12-2231.1

Abstract

Paleoecology can provide valuable insights into the ecology of species that complement observation and experiment-based assessments of climate impact dynamics. New paleoecological records (e.g., pollen, macrofossils) from the Italian Peninsula suggest a much wider climatic niche of the important European tree species Abies alba (silver fir) than observed in its present spatial range. To explore this discrepancy between current and past distribution of the species, we analyzed climatic data (temperature, precipitation, frost, humidity, sunshine) and vegetation-independent paleoclimatic reconstructions (e.g., lake levels, ...

 

Long-term forest fire ecology and dynamics in southern Switzerland

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 87, No. 2. (1 March 1999), pp. 273-289, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.1999.00346.x

Abstract

1. Pollen and charcoal analysis at two lakes in southern Switzerland revealed that fire has had a prominent role in changing the woodland composition of this area for more than 7000 years. 2. The sediment of Lago di Origlio for the period between 5100 and 3100 BC cal. was sampled continuously with a time interval of about 10 years. Peaks of charcoal particles were significantly correlated with repeated declines in pollen of Abies, Hedera, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior t., Fagus and ...

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