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Selection: Ciais:P [15 articles] 

Publications by author Ciais:P.

How have past fire disturbances contributed to the current carbon balance of boreal ecosystems?

Biogeosciences, Vol. 13, No. 3. (04 February 2016), pp. 675-690,


Boreal fires have immediate effects on regional carbon budgets by emitting CO2 into the atmosphere at the time of burning, but they also have legacy effects by initiating a long-term carbon sink during post-fire vegetation recovery. Quantifying these different effects on the current-day pan-boreal (44–84° N) carbon balance and quantifying relative contributions of legacy sinks by past fires is important for understanding and predicting the carbon dynamics in this region. Here we used the global dynamic vegetation model ORCHIDEE–SPITFIRE (Organising Carbon and ...


The global methane budget 2000–2012

Earth System Science Data, Vol. 8, No. 2. (12 December 2016), pp. 697-751,


The global methane (CH4) budget is becoming an increasingly important component for managing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. This relevance, due to a shorter atmospheric lifetime and a stronger warming potential than carbon dioxide, is challenged by the still unexplained changes of atmospheric CH4 over the past decade. Emissions and concentrations of CH4 are continuing to increase, making CH4 the second most important human-induced greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Two major difficulties in reducing uncertainties come from the large variety ...


The challenge to keep global warming below 2 °C

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 1. (2 December 2012), pp. 4-6,


The latest carbon dioxide emissions continue to track the high end of emission scenarios, making it even less likely global warming will stay below 2 °C. A shift to a 2 °C pathway requires immediate significant and sustained global mitigation, with a probable reliance on net negative emissions in the longer term. ...


Intercomparison of MODIS albedo retrievals and in situ measurements across the global FLUXNET network

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 121 (June 2012), pp. 323-334,


[Abstract] Surface albedo is a key parameter in the Earth's energy balance since it affects the amount of solar radiation directly absorbed at the planet surface. Its variability in time and space can be globally retrieved through the use of remote sensing products. To evaluate and improve the quality of satellite retrievals, careful intercomparisons with in situ measurements of surface albedo are crucial. For this purpose we compared MODIS albedo retrievals with surface measurements taken at 53 FLUXNET sites that met strict ...


The status and challenge of global fire modelling

Biogeosciences, Vol. 13, No. 11. (09 June 2016), pp. 3359-3375,


Biomass burning impacts vegetation dynamics, biogeochemical cycling, atmospheric chemistry, and climate, with sometimes deleterious socio-economic impacts. Under future climate projections it is often expected that the risk of wildfires will increase. Our ability to predict the magnitude and geographic pattern of future fire impacts rests on our ability to model fire regimes, using either well-founded empirical relationships or process-based models with good predictive skill. While a large variety of models exist today, it is still unclear which type of model or ...


Consistent land- and atmosphere-based U.S. carbon sink estimates

Science, Vol. 292, No. 5525. (2001), pp. 2316-2320,


For the period 1980-89, we estimate a carbon sink in the coterminous United States between 0.30 and 0.58 petagrams of carbon per year (petagrams of carbon = 1015 grams of carbon). The net carbon flux from the atmosphere to the land was higher, 0.37 to 0.71 petagrams of carbon per year, because a net flux of 0.07 to 0.13 petagrams of carbon per year was exported by rivers and commerce and returned to the atmosphere elsewhere. These land-based estimates are larger ...


Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 27. (08 July 2014), pp. 9757-9761,


[Significance] The projected increase in warm extremes associated with climate change is a major concern for society and represents a threat to humans and ecosystems. This study shows that heat wave impacts could be attenuated locally by increasing surface albedo through crop residue management (no-till farming). This is due to an identified asymmetric impact of surface albedo change on summer temperature distribution resulting in a much stronger influence on hot extremes than on mean temperatures. This finding has important implications for ...


Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 5, No. 3. (01 July 2010), 034007,
by Chuixiang Yi, Daniel Ricciuto, Runze Li, John Wolbeck, Xiyan Xu, Mats Nilsson, Luis Aires, John D. Albertson, Christof Ammann, M. Altaf Arain, Alessandro C. de Araujo, Marc Aubinet, Mika Aurela, Zoltán Barcza, Alan Barr, Paul Berbigier, Jason Beringer, Christian Bernhofer, Andrew T. Black, Paul V. Bolstad, Fred C. Bosveld, Mark S. J. Broadmeadow, Nina Buchmann, Sean P. Burns, Pierre Cellier, Jingming Chen, Jiquan Chen, Philippe Ciais, Robert Clement, Bruce D. Cook, Peter S. Curtis, D. Bryan Dail, Ebba Dellwik, Nicolas Delpierre, Ankur R. Desai, Sabina Dore, Danilo Dragoni, Bert G. Drake, Eric Dufrêne, Allison Dunn, Jan Elbers, Werner Eugster, Matthias Falk, Christian Feigenwinter, Lawrence B. Flanagan, Thomas Foken, John Frank, Juerg Fuhrer, Damiano Gianelle, Allen Goldstein, Mike Goulden, Andre Granier, Thomas Grünwald, Lianhong Gu, Haiqiang Guo, Albin Hammerle, Shijie Han, Niall P. Hanan, László Haszpra, Bernard Heinesch, Carole Helfter, Dimmie Hendriks, Lindsay B. Hutley, Andreas Ibrom, Cor Jacobs, Torbjörn Johansson, Marjan Jongen, Gabriel Katul, Gerard Kiely, Katja Klumpp, Alexander Knohl, Thomas Kolb, Werner L. Kutsch, Peter Lafleur, Tuomas Laurila, Ray Leuning, Anders Lindroth, Heping Liu, Benjamin Loubet, Giovanni Manca, Michal Marek, Hank A. Margolis, Timothy A. Martin, William J. Massman, Roser Matamala, Giorgio Matteucci, Harry McCaughey, Lutz Merbold, Tilden Meyers, Mirco Migliavacca, Franco Miglietta, Laurent Misson, Meelis Mölder, John Moncrieff, Russell K. Monson, Leonardo Montagnani, Mario Montes-Helu, Eddy Moors, Christine Moureaux, Mukufute M. Mukelabai, J. William Munger, May Myklebust, Zoltán Nagy, Asko Noormets, Walter Oechel, Ram Oren, Stephen G. Pallardy, Kyaw Tha Paw, João S. Pereira, Kim Pilegaard, Krisztina Pintér, Casimiro Pio, Gabriel Pita, Thomas L. Powell, Serge Rambal, James T. Randerson, Celso von Randow, Corinna Rebmann, Janne Rinne, Federica Rossi, Nigel Roulet, Ronald J. Ryel, Jorgen Sagerfors, Nobuko Saigusa, María J. Sanz, Giuseppe-Scarascia Mugnozza, Hans P. Schmid, Guenther Seufert, Mario Siqueira, Jean-François Soussana, Gregory Starr, Mark A. Sutton, John Tenhunen, Zoltán Tuba, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Riccardo Valentini, Christoph S. Vogel, Jingxin Wang, Shaoqiang Wang, Weiguo Wang, Lisa R. Welp, Xuefa Wen, Sonia Wharton, Matthew Wilkinson, Christopher A. Williams, Georg Wohlfahrt, Susumu Yamamoto, Guirui Yu, Roberto Zampedri, Bin Zhao, Xinquan Zhao


Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate–carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO 2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites ...


Evidence for soil water control on carbon and water dynamics in European forests during the extremely dry year: 2003

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 143, No. 1-2. (16 March 2007), pp. 123-145,


The drought of 2003 was exceptionally severe in many regions of Europe, both in duration and in intensity. In some areas, especially in Germany and France, it was the strongest drought for the last 50 years, lasting for more than 6 months. We used continuous carbon and water flux measurements at 12 European monitoring sites covering various forest ecosystem types and a large climatic range in order to characterise the consequences of this drought on ecosystems functioning. As soil water content ...


Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 8. (25 February 2014), pp. 2915-2919,


[Significance] China has the largest afforested area in the world. Afforestation not only contributes to increased carbon storage but also alters local albedo and turbulent energy fluxes, which offers feedback on the local and regional climate. This study presents previously unidentified observational evidence of the effect of large-scale afforestation on land surface temperature (LST) in China. Afforestation decreases daytime LST, because of enhanced evapotranspiration, and increases nighttime LST. This nighttime warming tends to offset daytime cooling in dry regions. These results ...


Climate extremes and the carbon cycle

Nature, Vol. 500, No. 7462. (14 August 2013), pp. 287-295,


The terrestrial biosphere is a key component of the global carbon cycle and its carbon balance is strongly influenced by climate. Continuing environmental changes are thought to increase global terrestrial carbon uptake. But evidence is mounting that climate extremes such as droughts or storms can lead to a decrease in regional ecosystem carbon stocks and therefore have the potential to negate an expected increase in terrestrial carbon uptake. Here we explore the mechanisms and impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial ...


Interactions of the carbon cycle, human activity, and the climate system: a research portfolio

Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Vol. 2, No. 4. (October 2010), pp. 301-311,


There has never been a greater need for delivering timely and policy-relevant information on the magnitude and evolution of the human-disturbed carbon cycle. In this paper, we present the main thematic areas of an ongoing global research agenda and prioritize future needs based on relevance for the evolution of the carbon–climate–human system. These include firstly, the delivery of routine updates of global and regional carbon budgets, including its attribution of variability and trends to underlying drivers; secondly, the assessment of the ...


Carbon accumulation in European forests

Nature Geoscience, Vol. 1, No. 7. (22 June 2008), pp. 425-429,


European forests are intensively exploited for wood products, yet they also form a sink for carbon. European forest inventories, available for the past 50 years, can be combined with timber harvest statistics to assess changes in this carbon sink. Analysis of these data sets between 1950 and 2000 from the EU-15 countries excluding Luxembourg, plus Norway and Switzerland, reveals that there is a tight relationship between increases in forest biomass and forest ecosystem productivity but timber harvests grew more slowly. Encouragingly, ...


A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World’s Forests

Science, Vol. 333, No. 6045. (19 August 2011), pp. 988-993,


The terrestrial carbon sink has been large in recent decades, but its size and location remain uncertain. Using forest inventory data and long-term ecosystem carbon studies, we estimate a total forest sink of 2.4 ± 0.4 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C year–1) globally for 1990 to 2007. We also estimate a source of 1.3 ± 0.7 Pg C year–1 from tropical land-use change, consisting of a gross tropical deforestation emission of 2.9 ± 0.5 Pg C year–1 partially compensated ...


Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003

Nature, Vol. 437, No. 7058. (22 September 2005), pp. 529-533,


Future climate warming is expected to enhance plant growth in temperate ecosystems and to increase carbon sequestration1, 2. But although severe regional heatwaves may become more frequent in a changing climate3, 4, their impact on terrestrial carbon cycling is unclear. Here we report measurements of ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes, remotely sensed radiation absorbed by plants, and country-level crop yields taken during the European heatwave in 2003. We use a terrestrial biosphere simulation model5 to assess continental-scale changes in primary productivity during ...

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