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Selection: Carpenter:SR [8 articles] 

Publications by author Carpenter:SR.
 

Regulation of lake primary productivity by food web structure

  
Ecology, Vol. 68, No. 6. (December 1987), pp. 1863-1876, https://doi.org/10.2307/1939878

Abstract

We performed whole—lake manipulations of fish populations to test the hypothesis that higher trophic levels regulate zooplankton and phytoplankton community structure, biomass, and primary productivity. The study involved three lakes and spanned 2 yr. Results demonstrated hierarchical control of primary production by abiotic factors and a trophic cascade involving fish predation. In Paul Lake, the reference lake, productivity varied from year to year, illustrating the effects of climatic factors and the natural dynamics of unmanipulated food web interactions. In Tuesday Lake, ...

 

Ecological forecasts: an emerging imperative

  
Science, Vol. 293, No. 5530. (2001), pp. 657-660, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.293.5530.657

Abstract

Planning and decision-making can be improved by access to reliable forecasts of ecosystem state, ecosystem services, and natural capital. Availability of new data sets, together with progress in computation and statistics, will increase our ability to forecast ecosystem change. An agenda that would lead toward a capacity to produce, evaluate, and communicate forecasts of critical ecosystem services requires a process that engages scientists and decision-makers. Interdisciplinary linkages are necessary because of the climate and societal controls on ecosystems, the feedbacks involving ...

 

Planetary boundaries: guiding human development on a changing planet

  
Science, Vol. 347, No. 6223. (2015), https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1259855

Abstract

[Editor summary: Crossing the boundaries in global sustainability] The planetary boundary (PB) concept, introduced in 2009, aimed to define the environmental limits within which humanity can safely operate. This approach has proved influential in global sustainability policy development. Steffen et al. provide an updated and extended analysis of the PB framework. Of the original nine proposed boundaries, they identify three (including climate change) that might push the Earth system into a new state if crossed and that also have a pervasive influence ...

 

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis - A Report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

  
(2005)

Abstract

[Excerpt] Everyone in the world depends completely on Earth’s ecosystems and the services they provide, such as food, water, disease management, climate regulation, spiritual fulfillment, and aesthetic enjoyment. Over the past 50 years, humans have changed these ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber, and fuel. This transformation of the planet has contributed to substantial net gains in human well-being and economic development. But not all regions ...

Visual summary

 

Creating a safe operating space for iconic ecosystems

  
Science, Vol. 347, No. 6228. (20 March 2015), pp. 1317-1319, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa3769

Abstract

Although some ecosystem responses to climate change are gradual, many ecosystems react in highly nonlinear ways. They show little response until a threshold or tipping point is reached where even a small perturbation may trigger collapse into a state from which recovery is difficult (1). Increasing evidence shows that the critical climate level for such collapse may be altered by conditions that can be managed locally. These synergies between local stressors and climate change provide potential opportunities for proactive management. Although ...

 

Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems

  
Ecology and Society, Vol. 9, No. 2. (2004), 5+

Abstract

The concept of resilience has evolved considerably since Holling’s (1973) seminal paper. Different interpretations of what is meant by resilience, however, cause confusion. Resilience of a system needs to be considered in terms of the attributes that govern the system’s dynamics. Three related attributes of social–ecological systems (SESs) determine their future trajectories: resilience, adaptability, and transformability. Resilience (the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, ...

 

Trading carbon for food: Global comparison of carbon stocks vs. crop yields on agricultural land

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 107, No. 46. (16 November 2010), pp. 19645-19648, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011078107

Abstract

Expanding croplands to meet the needs of a growing population, changing diets, and biofuel production comes at the cost of reduced carbon stocks in natural vegetation and soils. Here, we present a spatially explicit global analysis of tradeoffs between carbon stocks and current crop yields. The difference among regions is striking. For example, for each unit of land cleared, the tropics lose nearly two times as much carbon (∼120 tons·ha−1 vs. ∼63 tons·ha−1) and produce less than one-half the annual crop ...

 

Global consequences of land use

  
Science, Vol. 309, No. 5734. (22 July 2005), pp. 570-574, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1111772

Abstract

Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. Such changes in land use have enabled ...

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