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Selection: Birks:HH [4 articles] 

Publications by author Birks:HH.

Stay or go - How topographic complexity influences alpine plant population and community responses to climate change

Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics (November 2017),


In the face of climate change, populations have two survival options − they can remain in situ and tolerate the new climatic conditions (“stay”), or they can move to track their climatic niches (“go”). For sessile and small-stature organisms like alpine plants, staying requires broad climatic tolerances, realized niche shifts due to changing biotic interactions, acclimation through plasticity, or rapid genetic adaptation. Going, in contrast, requires good dispersal and colonization capacities. Neither the magnitude of climate change experienced locally nor the ...


Pollen methods and studies - Numerical Analysis Methods

In Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science (2013), pp. 593-612,


This article provides an introduction to plant macrofossil analysis and an overview of the articles in this subsection. A plant macrofossil can be defined as a plant fossil that is visible to the naked eye and that can be manipulated by hand. There are short accounts of where macrofossils can be found, how they are sampled and analyzed, their taphonomy, and how they represent the vegetation that produced them. Macrofossil types of particular paleoecological interest are illustrated by photographs. Examples are ...


Quaternary Palaeoecology

(1980), 289
Keywords: paleoecology   quaternary  


Quaternary Palaeoecology, first published in 1980, discusses the methods and approaches by which Quaternary environments can be reconstructed from the fossil and sedimentary record. This knowledge is of great value as the Quaternary was a time of rapid ecological change, culminating in the present pattern and diversity of ecosystems. It is possible not only to relate these changes to fluctuating climates but also to infer what Man's early influence may have been. The authors describe how past flora and fauna can ...


The Rise and Fall of Forests

Science, Vol. 305, No. 5683. (23 July 2004), pp. 484-485,


After a catastrophic disturbance to an ecosystem, there is an initial period of ecosystem buildup, eventually followed (in the absence of another major disturbance) by a decline phase during which ecosystem productivity and plant biomass decrease. In their Perspective, Birks and Birks discuss a recent chronosequence analysis of six types of forest ecosystem that demonstrates how changes in soil composition contribute to ecosystem decline during interglacial periods ( Wardle et al.). ...

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