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Selection: Bastrup-Birk:A [16 articles] 

Publications by author Bastrup-Birk:A.

European Forest Types: toward an automated classification

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 75, No. 1. (2018), pp. 1-14,


[Key message] The outcome of the present study leads to the application of a spatially explicit rule-based expert system (RBES) algorithm aimed at automatically classifying forest areas according to the European Forest Types (EFT) system of nomenclature at pan-European scale level. With the RBES, the EFT system of nomenclature can be now easily implemented for objective, replicable, and automatic classification of field plots for forest inventories or spatial units (pixels or polygons) for thematic mapping. [Context] Forest Types classification systems are aimed at stratifying ...


Terrestrial ecosystems, soil and forests

In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 153-182,


[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] Observed climate change has had many impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, such as changes in soil conditions, advances in phenological stages, altitudinal and latitudinal migration of plant and animal species (generally northwards and upwards), and changes in species interactions and species composition in communities, including local extinctions. [::] The relative importance of climate change as a major driver of biodiversity and ecosystem change is projected to increase further in the future. In addition to climate change, human efforts to mitigate and adapt to ...


  1. Alkemade, R., Bakkenes, M., Eickhout, B., 2011. Towards a general relationship between climate change and biodiversity: An example for plant species in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 11, 143–150. .
  2. Allen, C. D., Macalady, A. K., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Kitzberger, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D. D., Hogg, E. H. (Ted), Gonzalez, P., Fensham, R., Zhang, Z., Castro, J., Demidova, N., Lim, J.-H., Allard, G., Running, S. W., Semerci, A.,

Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report

Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017),


[Excerpt: Executive summary] Key messages [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy ...


European databases on invasive alien species

In Introduced tree species in European forests: opportunities and challenges (2016), pp. 136-143


[Excerpt] The capacity to identify and mitigate threats from invasive alien species (IAS) relies on accurate, updated and easily accessible information. This would help to synthesise risks and impacts of the most common and/or threatening IAS and to prevent and control biological invasions into European forests. [\n] The EU Biodiversity Strategy 2020 (COM 2011) has dedicated an action to prevent the introduction and establishment of IAS. The EU Regulation on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species, recently entered into force (EU ...


  1. Benesperi, R., Giuliani, C., Zanetti, S., Gennai, M., Lippi, M.M., Guidi, T., Foggi, B., 2012. Forest plant diversity is threatened by Robinia pseudoacacia (black-locust) invasion. Biodiversity and Conservation 21(14), 3555–3568. .
  2. Brundu, G., Richardson, D.M., 2016. Planted forests and invasive alien trees in Europe: a Code for managing existing and future plantings to mitigate the risk of negative impacts from invasions. NeoBiota 30, 5–47. .
  3. Chytrý, M., Lindsay, C.M.,

European forest ecosystems - State and trends

Vol. 5/2016 (21 March 2016),


[Executive summary] The importance of forests with regard to supporting human needs is considerable. [\n] Forests are rich in biodiversity and valuable for recreation, water regulation and soil protection. [\n] As well as for providing timber and other non-wood forest products, forests are important for mitigating climate change and for the renewable energy sector. [\n] Forest ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental, economic and social pressures that challenge their sustainability. The forest sector is influenced by the unprecedented pressures arising from climate change and the growing demands of society on natural resources. ...


  1. Agenda 21, 2016. , accessed 25 February 2016.
  2. Adams, M. A., 2013. Mega-fires, tipping points and ecosystem services: Managing forests and woodlands in an uncertain future. Forest Ecology and Management, 294, 250–261. .
  3. Aggestam, F., Weiss, G., 2011. An updated and further elaborated policy database and a tested prototype of policy analysis interface for ToSIA, EFI Technical Report 38, European Forest Institute, Joensuu.

National forest inventories - Pathways for common reporting

by Iciar Alberdi Asensio, Anna-Lena Axelsson, Anamaria Azevedo, Susana Barreiro, Annemarie Bastrup-Birk, Peter N. Beets, Jana Beranova, Roberto V. Bombin, Paul Boudewyn, Olivier Bouriaud, Mario Božić, Urs-Beat Brändli, Andrea Brandon, Anne Branthomme, Peter Brassel, Graham Bull, Rita Butterschøn, Vladimír Čaboun, Juro Čavlović, Martin Cerný, Gherardo Chirici, Emil Cienciala, Catherine Cluzeau, Antoine Colin, Sonia Condés Ruiz, Wim P. Daamen, Yeda M. de Oliveira, Lucio DiCosmo, Gerard M. Dirkse, Marius Dumitru, Bridget V. Fraser, Joberto Freitas, Jonas Fridman, Karl Gabler, Patrizia Gasparini, Mark D. Gillis, Christian Ginzler, Paulo Godinho-Ferreira, Guilherme Gomide, Takeshi Goto, Chris J. Goulding, Thomas Gschwantner, Nabila Hamza, Mark H. Hansen, Petra Hennig, Jean-Christophe Hervé, Yasumasa Hirata, Lingxia Hong, Gro Hylen, Yuji Imaizumi, Jurgis Jansons, Jin-Hyun Jeong, Vivian K. Johannsen, Albertas Kasperavičius, Edgar Kaufmann, Sung-Ho Kim, László Kolozs, Marko Kovac, Franz Kroiher, Miloš Kučera, Gintaras Kulbokas, Andrius Kuliešis, Gal Kusar, Paul M. Lane, Adrian Lanz, Nicolas Latte, Mark Lawrence, Xiangdong Lei, Ieva Licite, Loizos Loizou, Anders Lundström, Yuanchang Lu, Gheorghe Marin, Santiago S. Martínez deToda, Felipe P. Martín, Toshimasa Masuyama, Yoko Matsumoto, Patricia Mattos, Ronald E. McRoberts, Ioannis Meliadis, Roman Michalak, Javier M. Millán, Hiroki Miyazono, Martin Moravčík, Jan-Erik Nilsen, Daniel Nitu, Thomas Nord-Larsen, Christy O’Donovan, Gerardo S. Peña, Hans Petersson, Marco Piazza, Heino Polley, Katja Power, Tibor Priwitzer, John Redmond, Nicolas Robert, Jacques Rondeux, Maria A. Rosot, Glenda Russo, Mohamed Saket, Christine Sanchez, Klemens Schadauer, Friedrich Schmitz, Man-Yong Shin, Primoz Simoncic, Jens P. Skovsgaard, W. Brad Smith, Arnór Snorrason, Ulf Söderberg, O. N. Solontsov, Göran Ståhl, Peter R. Stephens, András Szepesi, Mengping Tang, Esther Thürig, Erkki Tomppo, Stein M. Tomter, Vittorio Tosi, Thekla Tsitsoni, Tarja Tuomainen, Mislav Vedriš, Veiko Adermann, Lars Vesterdal, Claude Vidal, José A. Villanueva Aranguren, Marc Wagner, Peter Weiss, Susanne Winter, Theocharis Zagkas, Stanisław Zajączkowski


[Excerpt: Preface] Forest inventories throughout the world have evolved gradually over time. The content as well as the concepts and definitions employed are constantly adapted to the users’ needs. Advanced inventory systems have been established in many countries within Europe, as well as outside Europe, as a result of development work spanning several decades, in some cases more than 100 years. [\n] With continuously increasing international agreements and commitments, the need for information has also grown drastically, and reporting requests have become more frequent and the content of the ...


Mapping and assessing the condition of Europe's ecosystems: progress and challenges - EEA contribution to the implementation of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020

No. 3/2016. (2016),


[Excerpt: Executive summary] We depend on healthy and resilient ecosystems to continue to deliver a range of essential services, such as food, water, clean air and recreation, into the future. However, our natural capital is being lost to or degraded by pressures such as pollution, climate change, overexploitation and urban development. The EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 therefore sets a target to maintain and enhance ecosystems and their services by establishing green infrastructures and restoring at least 15 % of degraded ecosystems by 2020. Mapping ecosystems and their condition is essential for measuring ...


  1. Adi Associates, 2014. Setting up of an Underwater Trail in the Marine Protected Area from Rdum Majjiesa to Rasir-Raheb. .
  2. Airoldi, L., Beck, M. W., 2007. Loss, status and trends for coastal marine habitats of Europe. Oceanography and Marine Biology, (45) 345–405.
  3. Armson, D., Stringer, P., Ennos, A. R., 2012. The effect of tree shade and grass on surface and globe temperatures in an urban area. Urban

An indicator framework for assessing ecosystem services in support of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020

Ecosystem Services, Vol. 17 (February 2016), pp. 14-23,


[Highlights] [::] EU Member states have to map and assess ecosystems and their services (MAES). [::] We present the MAES conceptual model which links biodiversity to human wellbeing. [::] Typologies of ecosystems and their services ensure comparability across countries. [::] We present a list of indicators that can be used for national MAES assessments. [::] We critically discuss the data gaps and challenges of the MAES typologies. [Abstract] In the EU, the mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services, abbreviated to MAES, is seen as a key ...

Visual summary


Mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services indicators for ecosystem assessments under action 5 of the EU biodiversity strategy to 2020: 2nd report - final, February 2014



The second MAES report presents indicators that can be used at European and Member State's level to map and assess biodiversity, ecosystem condition and ecosystem services according to the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES v4.3). This work is based on a review of data and indicators available at national and European level and is applying the MAES analytical framework adopted in 2013. ...


Developing a forest naturalness indicator for Europe - Concept and methodology for a high nature value forest indicator



[Excerpt] European forests represent around 25% of world’s forests and are the result of complex interactions between man and environment over the last thousands of years. Over more than 200 years, the forest cover has steadily increased in Europe. Intensive afforestation and reforestation projects were started in many countries since the beginning of the 1800’ies as a response to the lack of timber resources. In more recent times, urban areas have increased determining a stronger pressure on natural and semi-natural environments. ...


  1. Anderson, J.E., 1991. A conceptual framework for evaluating and quantifying naturalness. Conservation Biology, 5 (1991), pp. 347–352.
  2. Andersen, E., Baldock, D., Bennett, H., Beaufoy, G., Bignal, E., Brouwer, F., Elbersen, B., Eiden, G., Godeschalk, F., Jones, G., McCracken, D.I., Nieuwenhuizen, W., van Eupen, M., Hennekens, S. & Zervas, G., 2003. Developing a high nature value indicator. Report for the European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.
  3. Angermeier, P.L. 2000. The natural imperative for

Identifying strengths and limitations of pan-European forest cover maps through spatial comparison

International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol. 25, No. 11. (21 October 2011), pp. 1865-1884,


Detailed and harmonized information on spatial forest distribution is an essential input for forest-related environmental assessments, in particular, for biomass and growing stock modeling. In the last years, several mapping approaches have been developed in order to provide such information for Europe in a harmonized way. Each of these maps exhibits particular properties and varies in accuracy. Yet, they are often used in parallel for different modeling purposes. A detailed spatial comparison seemed necessary in order to provide information on the ...


Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2012: an indicator-based report

EEA Report, Vol. 12 (2012)


[Excerpt]Executive summary. Key messages • Climate change (increases in temperature, changes in precipitation and decreases in ice and snow) is occurring globally and in Europe; some of the observed changes have established records in recent years. • Observed climate change has already led to a wide range of impacts on environmental systems and society; further climate change impacts are projected for the future. • Climate change can increase existing vulnerabilities and deepen socio‐economic imbalances in Europe. • Damage ...


State of Europe's forests, 2011: status & trends in sustainable forest management in Europe



The State of Europe’s Forests 2011 report provides a comprehensive, up-to-date description of the status and trends of forests and forest management in Europe. The report aims to stimulate sound policy decisions on forests and forest-related issues in Europe by providing objective and harmonized data for FOREST EUROPE’s Signatories. This Summary for Policy Makers presents a compact and comprehensive overview of status and trends, as well as challenges and opportunities for forests, forest policy and forest management in Europe. The report is structured ...


Water quality improvements from afforestation in an agricultural catchment in Denmark illustrated with the INCA model

Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 4. (2004), pp. 764-777,


Intensive agricultural land use across Europe has altered nitrogen (N) budget of catchments substantially, causing widespread N pollution of freshwater. Although the N cycle in forests has changed due to increased N deposition, most forest soil waters in Europe have low nitrate concentrations. The protective function of forests on water quality has led to increasing interest in the planting of new forests on arable land as a measure to protect valuable or sensitive freshwater resources. The paper illustrates the effects of ...


Modelling and mapping the suitability of European forest formations at 1-km resolution

European Journal of Forest Research In European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 130, No. 6. (1 November 2011), pp. 971-981,


Proactive forest conservation planning requires spatially accurate information about the potential distribution of tree species. The most cost-efficient way to obtain this information is habitat suitability modelling i.e. predicting the potential distribution of biota as a function of environmental factors. Here, we used the bootstrap-aggregating machine-learning ensemble classifier Random Forest (RF) to derive a 1-km resolution European forest formation suitability map. The statistical model use as inputs more than 6,000 field data forest inventory plots and a large set of environmental ...


Comparative analysis of harmonized forest area estimates for European countries

Forestry, Vol. 84, No. 3. (01 July 2011), pp. 285-299,


Harmonized forest area information provides an important basis for environmental modelling and policy-making at both national and international levels. Traditionally, this information has been provided by national forest inventory statistics but is now increasingly complemented with remote sensing tools. Reliability and harmonization of both sources are important aspects to ensure comparability and to enable the development of international forest scenarios. Initiatives with the purpose of harmonization of forest area for both sources are currently ongoing. Nevertheless, all forest area estimates contain ...

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