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Selection: Baker:R [17 articles] 

Publications by author Baker:R.

Guidance on a harmonised framework for pest risk assessment and the identification and evaluation of pest risk management options by EFSA

EFSA Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2. (1 February 2010), 1495,


The Scientific Panel on Plant Health was requested by EFSA to develop a guidance document on a harmonised framework for risk assessment of organisms harmful to plants and plant products and the identification and evaluation of risk management options. The document provides guiding principles on assessment practices and approaches when assessing risks to plant health to support the decision-making process under Council Directive 2000/29/EC. The framework aims at implementing the fundamental principles of risk assessment as laid down in Regulation (EC) ...


Scientific opinion on the pest categorisation of Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr

EFSA Journal, Vol. 12, No. 10. (1 October 2014), pp. n/a-n/a,


The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to perform a pest categorisation of Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr, the fungal pathogen responsible for chestnut blight, a highly destructive disease that kills trees through bark cankers. The pathogen is listed in Annex IIAII of Directive 2000/29/EC. Its identity is clearly defined as C.parasitica (Murrill) Barr and methods exist for its discriminative detection. Several hosts are known, but the main hosts are species of Castanea and Quercus, particularly C.sativa and Q.petraea. ...


  1. Adamcikova, K., Kobza, M., Juhasova, G., 2010. Characteristics of the Cryphonectria parasitica isolated from Quercus in Slovakia. Forest Pathology 40, 443–449.
  2. Adamcikova, K., Juhasova, G., Kobza, M., Ondruskova, E., 2013. Diversity of microfungi on branches of Castanea sativa in Slovakia. Polish Botanical Journal 58, 741–746.
  3. Aguín Casal, O., Montenegro Gregorio, D., Pérez Otero, R., Mansilla Vázquez, J.P., 2005. VI Congreso Forestal Español, Zaragoza 2005. Available online: .

The International Plant Sentinel Network: a tool for regional and national plant protection organizations

EPPO Bulletin, Vol. 46, No. 1. (April 2016), pp. 156-162,


[Excerpt:Introduction] A 2011 global survey of botanic gardens and arboreta, which included 204 respondents from 146 institutes, revealed that the botanic garden community has the potential to play a significant role in safeguarding plant health. However, responding institutes cited a lack of available training, resources and coordination to support any such work (Kramer & Hird 2011). Since its launch in November 2013, the International Plant Sentinel Network (IPSN) has been working to provide this support and illustrate the usefulness of such a ...


Development of probabilistic models for quantitative pathway analysis of plant pest introduction for the EU territory

EFSA Supporting Publications, Vol. 13, No. 8. (1 August 2016), pp. n/a-n/a,


This report demonstrates a probabilistic quantitative pathway analysis model that can be used in risk assessment for plant pest introduction into EU territory on a range of edible commodities (apples, oranges, stone fruits and wheat). Two types of model were developed: a general commodity model that simulates distribution of an imported infested/infected commodity to and within the EU from source countries by month; and a consignment model that simulates the movement and distribution of individual consignments from source countries to destinations in the EU. The general ...


Planting sentinel European trees in Eastern Asia as a novel method to identify potential insect pest invaders

PLoS ONE, Vol. 10, No. 5. (20 May 2015), e0120864,


Quarantine measures to prevent insect invasions tend to focus on well-known pests but a large proportion of the recent invaders were not known to cause significant damage in their native range, or were not even known to science before their introduction. A novel method is proposed to detect new potential pests of woody plants in their region of origin before they are introduced to a new continent. Since Asia is currently considered to be the main supplier of insect invaders to ...


Pests Under Global Change — Meeting Your Future Landlords?

In Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World (2007), pp. 211-226,


[Introduction] The term global change embraces a range of natural and anthropogenic environmental changes that are occurring around the world (Vitousek 1994), including changes in atmospheric composition, climate, land use and land cover, and the prevalence of non-indigenous species. This synthesis describes contemporary approaches to the assessment of the vulnerability of ecosystems and human societies to plant pests (arthropods, plant pathogens and weeds that are injurious to plants) in relation to global change. Animal and human health have been covered elsewhere in recent reviews (Sutherst 2001, 2004). While the detailed impacts of ...


An analysis of pest risk from an Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) to hardwood trees in the European community

Crop Protection, Vol. 21, No. 8. (September 2002), pp. 635-645,


The risk posed by the wood-boring pest, Anoplophora glabripennis, to hardwood tree species in the EC was assessed using an internationally developed pest risk assessment scheme. The assessment reviewed information concerning the current distribution, biology and economic impact of A. glabripennis in Asia and North America together with recent European interceptions. Hosts grow across much of Europe and, using the computer program CLIMEX, southern regions of Europe were highlighted as areas where climate is most suitable for the pest's establishment. There ...


Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Xylella fastidiosa in the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

EFSA Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1. (January 2015), 3989,


[Abstract] The EFSA Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment and an evaluation of risk reduction options for Xylella fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa has been detected in olive in the EU with a distribution restricted to the region of Apulia in Italy and is under official control. X. fastidiosa has a very broad host range, including many common cultivated and wild plants. All xylem fluid-feeding insects in Europe are considered to be potential vectors. Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae), a polyphagous ...


Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Elm phloem necrosis mycoplasm

EFSA Journal, Vol. 12, No. 7. (July 2014), 3773,


The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Elm phloem necrosis mycoplasma, now renamed Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi (CPu), for the European Union (EU) territory. CPu is a well-defined phytoplasma species of the genus Candidatus Phytoplasma, for which molecular detection assays are available. CPu is transmitted by grafting and vegetative propagation material as well as by insect vectors. CPu is reported from North America and is present in at least four EU Member States: the Czech Republic, France, Germany and Italy. CPu distribution in Europe ...


  1. Arnaud, G., Malembic-Maher, S., Salar, P., Bonnet, P., Maixner, M., Marcone, C., Boudon-Padieu, E., and Foissac, X., 2007. Multilocus Sequence Typing confirms the close genetic interrelatedness of three distinct Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma strain lusters and group 16SrV Phytoplasmas infecting grapevine and alder in Europe. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, 4001–4010.
  2. Baker, W.L., 1949. Studies on the transmission of the virus causing phloem necrosis of American elm, with notes on the biology of its insect

Risk assessment of Gibberella circinata for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

EFSA Journal, Vol. 8, No. 6. (2010), 1620,


The Panel on Plant Health was asked to provide a risk assessment for Gibberella circinata Nirenberg and O’Donnell, for the EU territory, and to identify and evaluate effectiveness of risk management options in reducing the risk posed by the organism. G. circinata is presently not listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Outbreaks of the organism have been reported in EU (in Spain, Italy, France and Portugal). The risk assessment indicates that, in parts of the European Union, there is risk of pitch ...


Evaluation of a pest risk analysis on Thaumetopoea processionea L., the oak processionary moth, prepared by the UK and extension of its scope to the EU territory

EFSA Journal, Vol. 7, No. 6. (2009), 1195,


This opinion, published on 26th August 2009, replaces the previous version published on 29th June 2009 [2]. Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on a pest risk analysis for Thaumetopoea processionea L. prepared by the UK. The Panel was also asked to consider in its opinion the plant health risk of T. processionea to the whole EU territory. The oak processionary moth, Thaumetopoea processionea, is established in Europe and feeds ...


Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Dothistroma septosporum (Dorog.) M. Morelet (Mycosphaerella pini E. Rostrup, syn. Scirrhia pini) and Dothistroma pini Hulbary to the EU territory with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

EFSA Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1. (2013), 3026,


The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Scirrhia pini for the European Union (EU) territory, identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness. The risk assessment was conducted taking into account current EU legislation. The Panel also provided an opinion on the effectiveness of the present EU requirements against this organism listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Considering that there has been taxonomic confusion over the pest mentioned in the EU plant health legislation, the assessment was carried ...


Scientific Opinion on the phytosanitary risk associated with some coniferous species and genera for the spread of pine wood nematode

EFSA Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1. (2012), 2553,


The European Commission requested the Panel on Plant Health to deliver a scientific opinion on the phytosanitary risk of plants (other than fruits and seeds) of Pinus pinea and of the genera Chamaecyparis, Cryptomeria and Juniperus for the spread of pine wood nematode (PWN) via movement of infested plants or untreated plant products or by supporting natural spread of PWN in conjunction with European species of the vector. The Panel analysed the data submitted by Portugal regarding surveys on the Tróia ...


Scientific Opinion of the PLH Panel: Evaluation of Pest Risk Analysis on Phytophthora ramorum

EFSA Journal, Vol. 9, No. 6. (2011), 2186,


The Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Pest Risk Analysis on Phytophthora ramorum prepared by the FP6 project RAPRA, taking into account comments by Member States and additional information since RAPRA. P. ramorum is the oomycete causing sudden oak death in the USA and leaf and twig blight/dieback on a range of ornamental species in North America and Europe. Currently P. ramorum is not listed as a harmful organism in Council Directive 2000/29/EC, but ...


Advancing risk assessment models for invasive alien species in the food chain: contending with climate change, economics and uncertainty

Bioforsk FOKUS, Vol. 7, No. 10. (2012)


[Preface] Invasive alien species are widely recognized as a threat to the sustainability of natural resources and agricultural production. Global trade frequently moves pathogens and pests from their native range to new areas where they can become problematic. Insects and diseases initially associated with agriculture can become problematic in natural settings. Biosecurity efforts to protect agriculture and natural resources from new pests depend on accurate forecasts of where new species might arrive, establish, spread and have the greatest impact. This workshop ...


Mapping European forest tree species distribution to support pest risk assessment

Bioforsk FOKUS In Advancing risk assessment models for invasive alien species in the food chain: contending with climate change, economics and uncertainty, Vol. 7, No. 10. (2012)


Establishment and spread of plant pests and diseases depends on many ecological factors among which the availability and distribution of host plants plays a key role. Therefore, accurate information on the distribution of forest tree species is crucial for risk assessment of forest pests and diseases. Our project focuses on mapping the distribution of over 200 tree species in Europe on the basis of data provided by the National Forest Inventories (NFIs) of European countries at 1 km spatial resolution. Data provided by ...


Summary of the International Pest Risk Mapping Workgroup meeting sponsored by the Cooperative Research Program on Biological Resource Management for Sustainable Agricultural Systems

In 6th International Pest Risk Mapping Workgroup Meeting: "Advancing risk assessment models for invasive alien species in the food chain: contending with climate change, economics and uncertainty" (2012), pp. 1-2


The conference succeeded in stimulating new ideas about how to incorporate climate change, economics, and uncertainty into pest risk models and maps for invasive alien species and how to communicate these improved results to biosecurity policymakers. The full proceedings of the meeting will appear in an upcoming issue of the journal NeoBiota. ...

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