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Gradientes de temperaturas en la montaña española - Surface temperature lapse rates on the spanish mountains

Francisco M. Navarro-Serrano, Juan I. López-Moreno, Esteban Alonso-González, Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano, Alba Sanmiguel-Vallelado, Fergus Reig-Gracia, César Azorín-Molina



Abstract. A realistic estimation of how surface temperatures vary with elevation is important for climatic, hydrological and ecosystem studies. A fixed lapse rate of 6.5ºC/1.000 meters is generally assumed for the whole conditions and locations, but surface temperature lapse rates vary in space and time due to wind, relative humidity or local topography. In this paper we present an approximation lapse rates estimated in the main Spanish mountains using the database from the Spanish Meteorological Council (AEMET) weather stations network. The results shown variable lapse rates between mountainous regions, and its behavior is due to weather types and year timing. In general they are well below the often assumed 6.5ºC/1.000 m.

Resumen. Es crucial una estimación realista de cómo varían las temperaturas superficiales con la elevación para predicciones meteorológicas, modelos climáticos o estudios ecosistémicos. Habitualmente, se ha asumido un gradiente constante de 6.5 ºC/1.000 metros (Tmed grad_cons), identificado con el comportamiento en la troposfera libre. Sin embargo, trabajos recientes demuestran la existencia de gradientes de temperatura superficial específicos para cada área de estudio, que dependen de la humedad, presión atmosférica, viento, momento del año o topografía del terreno, entre otras variables. En este trabajo se han calculado los gradientes medios de temperatura superficial para el conjunto de España y sus principales sistemas montañosos a partir de la red de 5.090 observatorios de la Agencia Española de Meteorología (AEMET), desde diciembre de 1979 hasta agosto de 2015. Se han calculado los gradientes de temperaturas máximas (Tmax grad) y de temperaturas mínimas (Tmin grad) a escala diaria mediante un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple a partir de variables geográficas (elevación, latitud, longitud, distancia al mar y distancia al curso fluvial más cercano). Posteriormente se ha calculado el gradiente medio entre ambos (Tmed grad.). Los resultados muestran grandes diferencias entre los gradientes calculados y Tmed grad_cons lo que indica un comportamiento variable espacio-temporalmente. El gradiente medio anual para el conjunto de la montaña es pañola es de 5.37 ºC/1.000 m, siendo notablemente inferior al generalmente utilizado en estudios previos.


In Riscos associados a Fenómenos Meteorológicos e Geofisicos - 10º Simpósio de Meteorologia e Geofisica da APMG - 18º Encontro Luso-Espanhol de Meteorologia (2017) 
Key: INRMM:14533685

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