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Pest categorisation of Ips duplicatus

Michael Jeger, Claude Bragard, David Caffier, Thierry Candresse, Elisavet Chatzivassiliou, Katharina Dehnen-Schmutz, Gianni Gilioli, Josep A. Jaques Miret, Alan MacLeod, Maria Navajas Navarro, Björn Niere, Stephen Parnell, Roel Potting, Trond Rafoss, Vittorio Rossi, Gregor Urek, Ariena Van Bruggen, Wopke Van der Werf, Jonathan West, Stephan Winter, Virág Kertész, Mitesha Aukhojee, Jean‐Claude Grégoire

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the double-spined bark beetle, Ips duplicatus (Sahlberg, 1836) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. duplicatus is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe and attacking mainly spruce (Picea spp.) but also observed on pine (Pinus spp.) and larch (Larix spp.). It is distributed in 15 EU Member States and is locally spreading in some of them. I. duplicatus is listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones are in place in Ireland, Greece and the United Kingdom. Wood, wood products, bark, and wood packaging material are considered as pathways for this pest, which is also able to disperse by flight. The insects mostly attacks scattered individual standing trees in the stands, often when the trees are weakened by dry conditions or by pathogens, and they very rarely infest fallen or cut logs. The males produce pheromones that attract conspecifics of both sexes. Each male attracts 1–5 females and they establish a brood system; each female produces 1–60 offspring. The insects also inoculate their hosts with pathogenic fungi. There are one to three generations per year. The current geographic range of I. duplicatus suggests that it is able to establish in most of the EU, including the protected zones, where its hosts are present. Sanitary thinning or clear-felling and pheromone trapping are the usual control methods. All criteria for consideration as potential protected zone quarantine pest are met. The criteria for considering I. duplicatus as a potential regulated non-quarantine pest are not met since plants for planting are not viewed as a pathway.

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Conclusions. [...]
Identity of the pest ▹ The identity of the pest is established. It can be identified to the species level using conventional entomological keys. [...]
Absence/presence of the pest in the EU territory ▹ I. duplicatus is present and widely distributed in the EU; it has been reported from 15 EU MSs. The protected zones, Greece, Ireland and the United Kingdom, are free from the pest. [...]
Regulatory status ▹ The pest is currently officially regulated by 2000/29/EC on plants of Abies, Larix, Picea and Pinus over 3 m in height, other than fruit and seeds, wood of conifers (Coniferales) with bark, isolated bark of conifers.
I. duplicatus is regulated as a quarantine pest in protected zones (Annex IIB): Ireland, Greece and the United Kingdom.
[...]
The pest is regularly reported on Picea and Pinus, occasionally on Larix, exceptionally on Abies and Juniperus. This latter species is not mentioned in 2000/29/EC. [...]
Pest potential for entry, establishment and spread in the EU territory ▹ Entry: the pest is established in 15 MSs. Since entry by natural spread from EU areas where the pest is present is possible, only isolated areas (e.g. islands) can be long-term protected zones.
Establishment: the climate of the EU protected zones is similar to that of MSs where I. duplicatus is established, and the pest's main host plants are present.
Spread: adults can disperse naturally. The pest can also spread by human assistance, e.g. with the transportation of wood, wood chips, bark, wood packaging material and dunnage of conifers. [...]
Plants for planting are not a pathway for the spread of I. duplicatus.[...]
Potential for consequences in the EU territory ▹ The pest attacks mostly or solely standing trees and is still spreading within the EU. It has been reported as causing outbreaks in Poland and the Czech Republic, killing several hundred thousand m3 of weakened spruce.[...]
Young trees are not attacked by I. duplicatus, therefore impacts in nurseries are not expected. [...]
The aggressiveness (attack rate of healthy trees) of the beetle is not yet fully described and understood. [...]
Available measures ▹ In isolated areas (e.g. islands) that cannot be reached by natural spread, measures can be put in place to prevent the introduction of the pest. For wood, wood products, wood chips and bark this can be achieved by debarking wood and heat treatment of wood, bark and chips.
When such geographical barriers do not exist, there is no possibility to prevent the entry, establishment and spread of I. duplicatus by natural dispersal. [...]
Young plants are not attacked by I. duplicatus. [...]
Conclusion on pest categorisation ▹ All criteria assessed by EFSA above for consideration as potential protected zone quarantine pest are met. [...]
The criteria for considering I. duplicatus as a potential regulated non-quarantine pest are not met since plants for planting are not a pathway. [...]
Aspects of assessment to focus on/scenarios to address in future if appropriate ▹ The capacity of I. duplicatus to develop full outbreaks on healthy trees as well as the factors triggering the outbreaks still need to be clarified by further research. [...]


EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 10. (October 2017), e05040, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5040 
Key: INRMM:14472192

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