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Selection: library 5962 articles 

 

The importance of being modular

  
Science, Vol. 357, No. 6347. (14 July 2017), pp. 128-129, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aan8075

Abstract

In the 1970s, ecologists began to speculate that modular systems—which are organized into blocks or modules—can better contain perturbations and are therefore more resilient against external damage. This simple concept can be applied to any networked system, be it an ecosystem, cellular metabolism, traffic flows, human disease contagion, a power grid, or an economy. However, experimental evidence has been lacking. On page 199 of this issue, Gilarranz et al. provide empirical evidence showing that modular networked systems do indeed have an ...

 

Effects of network modularity on the spread of perturbation impact in experimental metapopulations

  
Science, Vol. 357, No. 6347. (14 July 2017), pp. 199-201, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal4122

Abstract

[Modularity limits disturbance effects] The networks that form natural, social, and technological systems are vulnerable to the spreading impacts of perturbations. Theory predicts that networks with a clustered or modular structure—where nodes within a module interact more frequently than they do with nodes in other modules—might contain a perturbation, preventing it from spreading to the entire network. Gilarranz et al. conducted experiments with networked populations of springtail (Folsomia candida) microarthropods to show that modularity limits the impact of a local extinction on ...

 

Evolution of a modular software network

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 108, No. 50. (13 December 2011), pp. 19985-19989, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1115960108

Abstract

“Evolution behaves like a tinkerer” (François Jacob, Science, 1977). Software systems provide a singular opportunity to understand biological processes using concepts from network theory. The Debian GNU/Linux operating system allows us to explore the evolution of a complex network in a unique way. The modular design detected during its growth is based on the reuse of existing code in order to minimize costs during programming. The increase of modularity experienced by the system over time has not counterbalanced the increase in ...

 

A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index

  
Journal of Climate In Journal of Climate, Vol. 23, No. 7. (19 November 2009), pp. 1696-1718, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009jcli2909.1

Abstract

The authors propose a new climatic drought index: the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). The SPEI is based on precipitation and temperature data, and it has the advantage of combining multiscalar character with the capacity to include the effects of temperature variability on drought assessment. The procedure to calculate the index is detailed and involves a climatic water balance, the accumulation of deficit/surplus at different time scales, and adjustment to a log-logistic probability distribution. Mathematically, the SPEI is similar to the ...

 

A high-accuracy map of global terrain elevations

  
Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 44, No. 11. (16 June 2017), pp. 5844-5853, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017gl072874
 

Different approaches to model future burnt area in the Iberian Peninsula

  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 202 (March 2015), pp. 11-25, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.11.018

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We distinguish four regions with different fire regimes in the Iberian Peninsula. [::] Statistical models (meteorology driven) are developed to reproduce burnt area series. [::] We check performances of RCMs simulating present climate burnt area distributions. [::] Different methods to correcting model biases are tested and applied to RCM outputs. [::] Our models project about 2–3 more times mean burnt area in Iberia around 2075. [Abstract] In this work we developed projections for future fire regimes in the Iberian Peninsula using outputs from Regional Climate Model ...

 

Robust projections of Fire Weather Index in the Mediterranean using statistical downscaling

  
Climatic Change, Vol. 120, No. 1-2. (2013), pp. 229-247, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-0787-3

Abstract

The effect of climate change on wildfires constitutes a serious concern in fire-prone regions with complex fire behavior such as the Mediterranean. The coarse resolution of future climate projections produced by General Circulation Models (GCMs) prevents their direct use in local climate change studies. Statistical downscaling techniques bridge this gap using empirical models that link the synoptic-scale variables from GCMs to the local variables of interest (using e.g. data from meteorological stations). In this paper, we investigate the application of statistical ...

 

Projecting future drought in Mediterranean forests: bias correction of climate models matters!

  
Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 117, No. 1-2. (2014), pp. 113-122, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-013-0992-z

Abstract

Global and regional climate models (GCM and RCM) are generally biased and cannot be used as forcing variables in ecological impact models without some form of prior bias correction. In this study, we investigated the influence of the bias correction method on drought projections in Mediterranean forests in southern France for the end of the twenty-first century (2071–2100). We used a water balance model with two different atmospheric climate forcings built from the same RCM simulations but using two different correction ...

 

Precipitation dominates fire occurrence in Greece (1900–2010): its dual role in fuel build-up and dryness

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 14, No. 1. (03 January 2014), pp. 21-32, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-14-21-2014

Abstract

Historical fire records and meteorological observations spanning over one century (1894–2010) were assembled in a database to collect long-term fire and weather data in Greece. Positive/negative events of fire occurrence on an annual basis were considered as the years where the annual values of the examined parameters were above (positive values) or below (negative values) the 95% confidence limits around the trend line of the corresponding parameter. To analyse the association of positive/negative events of fire occurrence with meteorological extremes, we ...

 

On the key role of droughts in the dynamics of summer fires in Mediterranean Europe

  
Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, No. 1. (6 March 2017), 81, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-00116-9

Abstract

Summer fires frequently rage across Mediterranean Europe, often intensified by high temperatures and droughts. According to the state-of-the-art regional fire risk projections, in forthcoming decades climate effects are expected to become stronger and possibly overcome fire prevention efforts. However, significant uncertainties exist and the direct effect of climate change in regulating fuel moisture (e.g. warmer conditions increasing fuel dryness) could be counterbalanced by the indirect effects on fuel structure (e.g. warmer conditions limiting fuel amount), affecting the transition between climate-driven and ...

 

Fire situation in Greece

  
International Forest Fire News, Vol. 23 (2000), pp. 76-83

Abstract

[Excerpt: Conclusions and Outlook] As can be seen, Greece has a serious fire problem. The money and effort devoted to coping with the problem is significant. Actually, especially in terms of aerial forces, the country should probably be rated first in the world on a per-hectare-protected basis. However, the poor results of the last few years clearly indicate that there is need for improvement, especially in regard to knowledge and organization of the whole effort. Also, there is a clear need for ...

 

Piano regionale di previsione, prevenzione e lotta attiva contro gli incendi boschivi 2011-2013 - Revisione 2013

  
(2013)

Abstract

[Excerpt] [:(Original language): Introduzione e quadro normativo] Il Piano Regionale Antincendi (P.R.AI.) è redatto in conformità a quanto sancito dalla legge quadro nazionale in materia di incendi boschivi (legge n. 353/2000) e alle relative linee guida emanate dal Ministro Delegato per il Coordinamento della Protezione Civile (D.M. 20 dicembre 2001). In attesa di una normativa regionale di recepimento, la materia è disciplinata, anche in Sardegna, dalla citata legge quadro n. 353/2000. [\n] Il Piano è volto a programmare e coordinare l’attività antincendio degli Enti Pubblici e di ...

 

An empirical comparison of model validation techniques for defect prediction models

  
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. 43, No. 1. (1 January 2017), pp. 1-18, https://doi.org/10.1109/tse.2016.2584050

Abstract

Defect prediction models help software quality assurance teams to allocate their limited resources to the most defect-prone modules. Model validation techniques, such as k -fold cross-validation, use historical data to estimate how well a model will perform in the future. However, little is known about how accurate the estimates of model validation techniques tend to be. In this paper, we investigate the bias and variance of model validation techniques in the domain of defect prediction. Analysis of 101 public defect datasets ...

 

Risk to plant health of Flavescence dorée for the EU territory

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 14, No. 12. (December 2016), 4603, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4603

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH) performed a quantitative analysis of the risk posed by the Flavescence dorée phytoplasma (FDp) in the EU territory. Three scenarios were analysed, one with current measures in place (scenario A0), one designed to improve grapevine propagation material phytosanitary status (scenario A1) and one with reinforced eradication and containment (scenario A2). The potential for entry is limited, FDp being almost non-existent outside the EU. FDp and its major ...

References

  1. ACRP, 2013. VitisClim Modelling epidemiological and economic consequences of Grapevine Flavescence dorée phytoplasma to Austrian viticulture under a climate change scenario. Final Report, https://www.klimafonds.gv.at/assets/Uploads/Projektberichte/ACRP-2009/20150716VitisclimACRP2EBB060361.pdf .
  2. AGRI4CAST, online. Interpolated Meteorological Data. Available online: http://mars.jrc.ec.europa.eu/mars/About-us/AGRI4CAST/Data-distribution/AGRI4CAST-Interpolated-Meteorological-Data .
  3. Bagnoli, B., Gargani, E., 2011. Survey on Scaphoideus titanus egg distribution on grapevine. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 67, 233–237.
  4. Belli, G., Fortusini, A., Osler, R., 1978. Present knowledge on diseases of the
 

Resampling methods for meta-model validation with recommendations for evolutionary computation

  
Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 20, No. 2. (16 February 2012), pp. 249-275, https://doi.org/10.1162/evco_a_00069

Abstract

Meta-modeling has become a crucial tool in solving expensive optimization problems. Much of the work in the past has focused on finding a good regression method to model the fitness function. Examples include classical linear regression, splines, neural networks, Kriging and support vector regression. This paper specifically draws attention to the fact that assessing model accuracy is a crucial aspect in the meta-modeling framework. Resampling strategies such as cross-validation, subsampling, bootstrapping, and nested resampling are prominent methods for model validation and ...

 

Combining multiple classifiers: an application using spatial and remotely sensed information for land cover type mapping

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 74, No. 3. (December 2000), pp. 545-556, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0034-4257(00)00145-0

Abstract

This article discusses two new methods for increasing the accuracy of classifiers used land cover mapping. The first method, called the product rule, is a simple and general method of combining two or more classification rules as a single rule. Stacked regression methods of combining classification rules are discussed and compared to the product rule. The second method of increasing classifier accuracy is a simple nonparametric classifier that uses spatial information for classification. Two data sets used for land cover mapping ...

 

Pest categorisation of Ips typographus

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 7. (July 2017), 4881, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4881

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the eight-toothed spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. typographus is a well-defined and distinguishable species, recognised mainly as a pest of spruce (Picea spp.) in Eurasia. It also attacks other conifers such as Abies spp., Larix spp., Pinus spp. and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Native to Eurasia, I. typographus has spread from the native range of spruce to new areas in Eurasia where spruce has been ...

References

  1. Anderbrant, O., 1990. Gallery construction and oviposition of the bark beetle Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) at different breeding densities. Ecological Entomology 15, 1–8.
  2. Bakke, A., 1970. Evidence of a population aggregating pheromone in Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Contributions from Boyce Thompson Institute 24, 309–310.
  3. Bakke, A., 1976. Spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus: pheromone production and field response to synthetic pheromones. Naturwissenschaften 63, 92–92.
  4. Bakke, A., 1989. The recent
 

Bagging ensemble selection for regression

  
In AI 2012: Advances in Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 7691 (2012), pp. 695-706, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35101-3_59

Abstract

Bagging ensemble selection (BES) is a relatively new ensemble learning strategy. The strategy can be seen as an ensemble of the ensemble selection from libraries of models (ES) strategy. Previous experimental results on binary classification problems have shown that using random trees as base classifiers, BES-OOB (the most successful variant of BES) is competitive with (and in many cases, superior to) other ensemble learning strategies, for instance, the original ES algorithm, stacking with linear regression, random forests or boosting. Motivated by ...

 

Bagging ensemble selection

  
In AI 2011: Advances in Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 7106 (2011), pp. 251-260, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-25832-9_26

Abstract

Ensemble selection has recently appeared as a popular ensemble learning method, not only because its implementation is fairly straightforward, but also due to its excellent predictive performance on practical problems. The method has been highlighted in winning solutions of many data mining competitions, such as the Netflix competition, the KDD Cup 2009 and 2010, the UCSD FICO contest 2010, and a number of data mining competitions on the Kaggle platform. In this paper we present a novel variant: bagging ensemble selection. ...

 

Pest categorisation of Dendroctonus micans

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 7. (July 2017), 4880, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4880

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Kugelann), (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. D. micans is a well-defined and distinguishable species, recognised mainly as a pest of spruce (Picea spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.) in Eurasia. Attacks on other conifers (Abies spp., Larix decidua, Pseudotsuga menziesii) are also reported. Supposedly originating from north-eastern Eurasia, D. micans has spread westward and is now distributed throughout the EU (22 Member States). It ...

References

  1. Akinci, H.A., Ozcan, G.E., Eroglu, M., 2009. Impacts of site effects on losses of oriental spruce during Dendroctonus micans (Kug.) outbreaks in Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology 8, 3934–3939. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/62085 .
  2. Balachowsky, A., 1949. Faune de France. 50. Coleoptères Scolytides. Lechevalier, Paris, 320 pp.
  3. Bergmiller, F., 1903. Dendroctonus micans und Rhizophagus grandis. Zentralblatt für das gesamte Forstwesen, 29, 252–256.
  4. Bevan, D., King, C.J., 1983. Dendroctonus micans
 

Cause dolose e colpose degli incendi in Sicilia: proposte per la rimozione degli interessi e dei bisogni alla base del fenomeno

  
In Atti del convegno: incendi boschivi e rurali in Sardegna - Dall’analisi delle cause alle proposte d’intervento (2005), pp. 177-185

Abstract

[:Excerpt: Index of sections (translated from Italian)] [::] Sicily - geographical overview and orographic structure [::] forest areas [::] protected areas [::] forest fires [::] the causes of fires [::] proposals for removing stakes and needs behind the phenomenon [\n] [\n] [:(Original language) Indice delle sezioni] [::] Sicilia - inquadramento geografico e caratteristiche orografiche [::] superfici boscate [::] aree protette [::] incendi boschivi [::] le cause degli incendi [::] proposte per la rimozione degli interessi e bisogni alla base del fenomeno ...

 

Spatiotemporal variations in wildfire regime and exposure for Sardinia, Italy

  
In Atti del Secondo Congresso Internazionale di Selvicoltura = Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Silviculture (2015), pp. 975-981, https://doi.org/10.4129/2cis-ol-var

Abstract

[Summary] Over the past decades several studies highlighted the increasing risk in the occurrence of large and severe wildfires as well as significant variation in fire regime pattern. In the Mediterranean basin, Sardinia (Italy) has seen a marked reduction in the annual area burned since the 1980s, with a sharp variation in mid-‘90s. Despite this downward trend wildfires still cause considerable financial losses, damages to natural ecosystems, accidents and fatalities. Therefore, efficient wildfire exposure and risk estimation as well as ...

 

The European Fire Database: technical specifications and data submission

  
Vol. 26546 (2014), https://doi.org/10.2788/2175

Abstract

The European Fire Database is an important component of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS), the EC focal point of information on forest fires established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the Directorate General for Environment to provide up to date and harmonized information on forest fires in Europe. As of 2014 EFFIS is part of the Forest Information System for Europe (FISE), following the new EU Forest Strategy adopted in 2013. The Fire Database is the largest repository ...

 

Simulating geographic transport network expansion through individual investments

  
In Spatial data analyses of urban land use and accessibility (2016), pp. 93-133

Abstract

This chapter introduces a GIS-based model that simulates the geographical expansion of transport networks by several decision makers with varying objectives. The model progressively adds extensions to a growing network by choosing the most attractive investments from a limited choice set. Attractiveness is defined as a function of variables in which revenue and broader societal benefits may play a role and can be based on empirically underpinned parameters that may differ according to private or public interests. The choice set is selected from an exhaustive set of ...

References

  1. Alonso, W., 1978. A theory of movements. In: Hansen, N.M. (Ed.), Human settlement systems: International perspectives on structure, change and public policy. Cambridge, MA. Ballinger, pp. 197–211.
  2. Anshelevich, E., Dasgupta, A., Tardos, E., Wexler, T., 2003. Near-optimal network design with selfish agents. In: Proceedings of the thirty-fifth annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing, San Diego, June 9-11, 2003. ACM, pp. 511–520.
  3. Bala, V., Goyal, S., 2000. A noncooperative model of
 

Forest disturbances under climate change

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 6. (31 May 2017), pp. 395-402, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3303

Abstract

Forest disturbances are sensitive to climate. However, our understanding of disturbance dynamics in response to climatic changes remains incomplete, particularly regarding large-scale patterns, interaction effects and dampening feedbacks. Here we provide a global synthesis of climate change effects on important abiotic (fire, drought, wind, snow and ice) and biotic (insects and pathogens) disturbance agents. Warmer and drier conditions particularly facilitate fire, drought and insect disturbances, while warmer and wetter conditions increase disturbances from wind and pathogens. Widespread interactions between agents are ...

 

Why input matters: selection of climate data sets for modelling the potential distribution of a treeline species in the Himalayan region

  
Ecological Modelling, Vol. 359 (2017), pp. 92-102

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Generalized Linear Models were used to model the potential distribution of Betula utilis in the Himalayan region. [::] Evaluation of predictive ability between climate data sets derived from different statistical methods. [::] Comparison of ‘interpolated’ (i.e. WORLDCLIM) and ‘quasi-mechanistical statistical downscaling’ (i.e. CHELSA) climate data. [::] Models based CHELSA climate data had higher predictive power, WORLDCLIM consistently overpredicted the potential habitat. [::] Unmindful usage of climatic variables for environmental niche models may potentially cause misleading projections. [Abstract] Betula utilis is a major constituent of alpine treeline ...

 

Modelling the potential distribution of Betula utilis in the Himalaya

  
Global Ecology and Conservation, Vol. 11 (July 2017), pp. 69-83, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2017.04.003

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We modelled for the first time potential distribution of Betula utilis in the Himalayan mountains on a broad scale. [::] Two temperature and three precipitation variables are useful for predicting the current potential distribution of B. utilis. [::] We applied Generalized Linear Models and evaluated model performance using a multi-faceted approach. [::] Comparison between the current predictions and the distribution range decribed in the vegetation map of Schweinfurth (1957). [::] New starting point for modelling treeline dynamics and treeline shifts in the Himalaya under ...

 

Three years to safeguard our climate

  
Nature, Vol. 546, No. 7660. (28 June 2017), pp. 593-595, https://doi.org/10.1038/546593a

Abstract

Christiana Figueres and colleagues set out a six-point plan for turning the tide of the world’s carbon dioxide by 2020. [Excerpt] [...] According to an April report1 (prepared by Carbon Tracker in London, the Climate Action Tracker consortium, the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany and Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut), should emissions continue to rise beyond 2020, or even remain level, the temperature goals set in Paris become almost unattainable. The UN Sustainable Development Goals that were agreed ...

 

Reviewers are blinkered by bibliometrics

  
Nature, Vol. 544, No. 7651. (26 April 2017), pp. 411-412, https://doi.org/10.1038/544411a

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Although journal impact factors (JIFs) were developed to assess journals and say little about any individual paper, reviewers routinely justify their evaluations on the basis of where candidates have published. [...] As economists who study science and innovation, we see engrained processes working against cherished goals. Scientists we interview routinely say that they dare not propose bold projects for funding in part because of expectations that they will produce a steady stream of papers in journals with high impact ...

 

How temporal patterns in rainfall determine the geomorphology and carbon fluxes of tropical peatlands

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 26. (27 June 2017), pp. E5187-E5196, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1701090114

Abstract

[Significance] A dataset from one of the last protected tropical peat swamps in Southeast Asia reveals how fluctuations in rainfall on yearly and shorter timescales affect the growth and subsidence of tropical peatlands over thousands of years. The pattern of rainfall and the permeability of the peat together determine a particular curvature of the peat surface that defines the amount of naturally sequestered carbon stored in the peatland over time. This principle can be used to calculate the long-term carbon dioxide emissions ...

 

When the appeal of a dominant leader is greater than a prestige leader

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 26. (27 June 2017), pp. 6734-6739, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1617711114

Abstract

[Significance] We examine why dominant/authoritarian leaders attract support despite the presence of other admired/respected candidates. Although evolutionary psychology supports both dominance and prestige as viable routes for attaining influential leadership positions, extant research lacks theoretical clarity explaining when and why dominant leaders are preferred. Across three large-scale studies we provide robust evidence showing how economic uncertainty affects individuals’ psychological feelings of lack of personal control, resulting in a greater preference for dominant leaders. This research offers important theoretical explanations for why, around ...

 

Global risk of deadly heat

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 7. (19 June 2017), pp. 501-506, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3322

Abstract

Climate change can increase the risk of conditions that exceed human thermoregulatory capacity. Although numerous studies report increased mortality associated with extreme heat events, quantifying the global risk of heat-related mortality remains challenging due to a lack of comparable data on heat-related deaths. Here we conducted a global analysis of documented lethal heat events to identify the climatic conditions associated with human death and then quantified the current and projected occurrence of such deadly climatic conditions worldwide. We reviewed papers published ...

 

More rain, less soil: long-term changes in rainfall intensity with climate change

  
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 41, No. 4. (30 March 2016), pp. 563-566, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3868

Abstract

This commentary discusses the role of long-term climate change in driving increases in soil erosion. Assuming that land use and management remain effectively constant, we discuss changes in the ability of rainfall to cause erosion (erosivity), using long daily rainfall data sets from southeast England. An upward trend in mean rainfall per rain day is detected at the century-plus timescale. Implications for soil erosion and sediment delivery are discussed and evidence from other regions reviewed. We conclude that rates of soil ...

 

Global environmental issues and the emergence of Second Order Science

  
Vol. 12803 (1990)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] The fundamental achievements of science, like those of all creative activities, have a timeless quality. The social activity of science, like any other, evolves in response to its changing circumstances, in its objects, methods and social functions. In the high Middle Ages, the independence of secular learning was established in the universities, removed from the monasteries; and the boundary between the sacred and private on the one hand, and the secular and public on the other, was set for ...

 

Tree diversity reduces pest damage in mature forests across Europe

  
Biology Letters, Vol. 12, No. 4. (27 April 2016), 20151037, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.1037

Abstract

Forest pest damage is expected to increase with global change. Tree diversity could mitigate this impact, but unambiguous demonstration of the diversity–resistance relationship is lacking in semi-natural mature forests. We used a network of 208 forest plots sampled along two orthogonal gradients of increasing tree species richness and latitudes to assess total tree defoliation in Europe. We found a positive relationship between tree species richness and resistance to insect herbivores: overall damage to broadleaved species significantly decreased with the number of ...

 

Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

  
Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14 (April 2012), 9452

Abstract

Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE ...

 

Satellites reveal contrasting responses of regional climate to the widespread greening of Earth

  
Science (25 May 2017), eaal1727, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal1727

Abstract

[The vegetation-climate loop] Just as terrestrial plant biomass is growing in response to increasing atmospheric CO2, climate change, and other anthropogenic influences, so is climate affected by those variations in vegetation. Forzieri et al. used satellite observations to analyze how changes in leaf area index (LAI), a measure of vegetation density, have influenced the terrestrial energy balance and local climates over the past several decades. An increase in LAI has helped to warm boreal zones through a reduction of surface albedo and ...

 

Modelling the effect of soil burn severity on soil erosion at hillslope scale in the first year following wildfire in NW Spain

  
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 41, No. 7. (15 June 2016), pp. 928-935, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3876

Abstract

Fire severity is recognized as a key factor in explaining post-fire soil erosion. However, the relationship between soil burn severity and soil loss has not been fully established until now. Sediment availability may also affect the extent of post-fire soil erosion. The objective of this study was to determine whether soil burn severity, estimated by an operational classification system based on visual indicators, can significantly explain soil loss in the first year after wildfire in shrubland and other areas affected by ...

 

Modelling post-fire soil erosion hazard using ordinal logistic regression: a case study in South-eastern Spain

  
Geomorphology, Vol. 232 (March 2015), pp. 117-124, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.12.005

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] A method to identify most vulnerable areas towards soil erosion has been proposed. [::] Slope steepness, aspect and fire severity were the inputs. [::] The field data were successfully fit to the model in 60% of cases after 50 runs. [::] North-facing slopes were shown to be less prone to soil erosion than the rest. [Abstract] Treatments that minimize soil erosion after large wildfires depend, among other factors, on fire severity and landscape configuration so that, in practice, most of them are applied according to ...

 

Wildfire effects on soil erodibility of woodlands in NW Spain

  
Land Degradation & Development, Vol. 21, No. 2. (March 2010), pp. 75-82, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.896

Abstract

Knowledge of soil erodibility following wildfire is of crucial importance for prioritisation of post-fire restoration practices for soil erosion mitigation. The present work therefore aims to determine the effect of wildfire on soil erodibility for common woodlands in Galicia, NW Spain. This is done by comparing selected topsoil properties of 28 pairs of recently wildfire-burned and neighbouring unburned sites on different geologic substrates. The soil properties were selected for their supposed importance in erodibility, and include aggregate size distribution and water ...

 

Risk of post-fire metal mobilization into surface water resources: a review

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 599-600 (December 2017), pp. 1740-1755, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.096

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Forest catchment supply high quality water to a number of communities around the world. [::] Forest fire release sequestered metals from soil organic matter and vegetation. [::] Post-fire erosion rapidly transports these metals to downstream soil and water bodies. [::] Their deposition in the water bodies affects the water quality and aquatic biota. [::] This metal contamination may reach to human being as a consumer. [Abstract] One of the significant economic benefits to communities around the world of having pristine forest catchments is the supply of ...

 

At the nexus of fire, water and society

  
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 371, No. 1696. (23 May 2016), 20150172, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0172

Abstract

The societal risks of water scarcity and water-quality impairment have received considerable attention, evidenced by recent analyses of these topics by the 2030 Water Resources Group, the United Nations and the World Economic Forum. What are the effects of fire on the predicted water scarcity and declines in water quality? Drinking water supplies for humans, the emphasis of this exploration, are derived from several land cover types, including forests, grasslands and peatlands, which are vulnerable to fire. In the last two ...

 

A global index for mapping the exposure of water resources to wildfire

  
Forests, Vol. 7, No. 1. (13 January 2016), 22, https://doi.org/10.3390/f7010022

Abstract

Wildfires are keystone components of natural disturbance regimes that maintain ecosystem structure and functions, such as the hydrological cycle, in many parts of the world. Consequently, critical surface freshwater resources can be exposed to post-fire effects disrupting their quantity, quality and regularity. Although well studied at the local scale, the potential extent of these effects has not been examined at the global scale. We take the first step toward a global assessment of the wildfire water risk (WWR) by presenting a ...

 

Seven myths of risk

  
Risk Management In Risk Management, Vol. 7, No. 2. (01 April 2005), pp. 7-17, https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.rm.8240209

Abstract

Communication between experts and the public has turned out to be unusually difficult in the field of risk research. These difficulties are closely connected to a series of recalcitrant misconceptions of risk and its social preconditions. In this paper, seven of the most pernicious myths of risk are exposed, namely: first, that ‘risk’ must have a single, well-defined meaning; second, that the severity of risks should be judged according to probability-weighted averages of the severity of their outcomes; third, that decisions ...

 

SoilGrids250m: Global gridded soil information based on machine learning

  
PLOS ONE, Vol. 12, No. 2. (16 February 2017), e0169748, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169748

Abstract

This paper describes the technical development and accuracy assessment of the most recent and improved version of the SoilGrids system at 250m resolution (June 2016 update). SoilGrids provides global predictions for standard numeric soil properties (organic carbon, bulk density, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), pH, soil texture fractions and coarse fragments) at seven standard depths (0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm), in addition to predictions of depth to bedrock and distribution of soil classes based on the World Reference ...

 

A gridded global data set of soil, intact regolith, and sedimentary deposit thicknesses for regional and global land surface modeling

  
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 8, No. 1. (March 2016), pp. 41-65, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015ms000526

Abstract

Earth's terrestrial near-subsurface environment can be divided into relatively porous layers of soil, intact regolith, and sedimentary deposits above unweathered bedrock. Variations in the thicknesses of these layers control the hydrologic and biogeochemical responses of landscapes. Currently, Earth System Models approximate the thickness of these relatively permeable layers above bedrock as uniform globally, despite the fact that their thicknesses vary systematically with topography, climate, and geology. To meet the need for more realistic input data for models, we developed a high-resolution ...

 

SoilGrids1km - Global soil information based on automated mapping

  
PLOS ONE, Vol. 9, No. 8. (29 August 2014), e105992, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105992

Abstract

Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. We present SoilGrids1km â a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution â containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths): soil organic carbon (g kgâ1), soil pH, sand, silt and ...

 

Lexicographic optimisation for water resources planning: the case of Lake Verbano, Italy

  
In Proceedings of the iEMSs First Biennial Meeting: Integrated Assessment and Decision Support (2002), pp. 235-240

Abstract

Lake Verbano is a natural lake used as multipurpose reservoir. The lake supplies water for irrigation and hydropower generation to downstream users, while flood controls are applied to protect the lake shores and the downstream populations on the Ticino river, and environmental preservation constraints must be respected. All these objectives are conflicting and they have different priorities, as stated by the Italian regulation on water use. This paper explores a methodology aimed at solving this conflict. The stakeholders involvement in the ...

 

Historical climate controls soil respiration responses to current soil moisture

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 24. (13 June 2017), pp. 6322-6327, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1620811114

Abstract

[Significance] Ecosystems’ feedback to climate change remains a source of uncertainty in global models that project future climate conditions. That uncertainty rests largely on how much soil carbon will be lost as microbial respiration and how that loss varies across ecosystems. Although there has been a large emphasis on microbial temperature responses, how soil microorganisms respond to changes in moisture remains poorly understood. Here we show that historical rainfall controls soil respiration responses to current moisture. This finding was robust, with historical ...

 

Percentiles

  
In NIST/SEMATECH e-Handbook of Statistical Methods (2012), 7.2.6.2

Abstract

[Excerpt: Definitions of order statistics and ranks] For a series of measurements Y1, …, YN, denote the data ordered in increasing order of magnitude by Y〈1〉, …, Y〈N〉. These ordered data are called order statistics. If Y〈j〉 is the order statistic that corresponds to the measurement Yᵢ, then the rank for Yᵢ is j; i.e., [::] Y〈j〉 ∼ Yᵢ, rᵢ=j. [Definition of percentiles] Order statistics provide a way of estimating proportions of the data that should fall above and below a ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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