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A global dataset of crowdsourced land cover and land use reference data

Scientific Data, Vol. 4 (13 June 2017), 170075,


Global land cover is an essential climate variable and a key biophysical driver for earth system models. While remote sensing technology, particularly satellites, have played a key role in providing land cover datasets, large discrepancies have been noted among the available products. Global land use is typically more difficult to map and in many cases cannot be remotely sensed. In-situ or ground-based data and high resolution imagery are thus an important requirement for producing accurate land cover and land use datasets ...


The Equal Earth map projection

International Journal of Geographical Information Science (07 August 2018), pp. 1-12,


The Equal Earth map projection is a new equal-area pseudocylindrical projection for world maps. It is inspired by the widely used Robinson projection, but unlike the Robinson projection, retains the relative size of areas. The projection equations are simple to implement and fast to evaluate. Continental outlines are shown in a visually pleasing and balanced way. ...


A global land-cover validation data set, II: augmenting a stratified sampling design to estimate accuracy by region and land-cover class

International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 33, No. 22. (18 June 2012), pp. 6975-6993,


A global validation database that can be used to assess the accuracy of multiple global and regional land-cover maps would yield significant cost savings and enhance comparisons of accuracy of different maps. Because the global validation database should expand over time as new validation data are contributed, the sampling design must be constructed so that it is simple to increase the sample size from a specific region (e.g. a continent or country) or from targeted land-cover classes to improve standard errors ...


A global land-cover validation data set, part I: fundamental design principles

International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 33, No. 18. (20 September 2012), pp. 5768-5788,


A number of land-cover products, both global and regional, have been produced and more are forthcoming. Assessing their accuracy would be greatly facilitated by a global validation database of reference sites that allows for comparative assessments of uncertainty for multiple land-cover data sets. We propose a stratified random sampling design for collecting reference data. Because the global validation database is intended to be applicable to a variety of land-cover products, the stratification should be implemented independently of any specific map to ...


A global reference database from very high resolution commercial satellite data and methodology for application to Landsat derived 30m continuous field tree cover data

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 165 (August 2015), pp. 234-248,


[Highlights] [::] We describe methods for producing a global land cover validation database. [::] High resolution satellite data are collected for a 500 site stratified random sample. [::] Categorical reference data are mapped from these data. [::] Reference maps are applied to the validation of global, continuous-field tree data. [::] Examples illustrating analysis of agreement are provided for 25 sites. [Abstract] The methodology for selection, creation, and application of a global remote sensing validation dataset using high resolution commercial satellite data is presented. High resolution data are obtained ...


Global bare ground gain from 2000 to 2012 using Landsat imagery

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 194 (June 2017), pp. 161-176,


[Highlights] [::] Global bare ground gain was characterized with Landsat time series. [::] Utilization of change maps for stratification provided better sampling efficiency. [::] Unbiased global bare ground gain estimate of 93,896 ± 9317 km2 from 2000 to 2012. [::] Human-induced bare ground gain accounted for 95% of the global total. [::] China had the largest bare ground gain area in the study period. [Abstract] Bare ground gain, or vegetative cover loss, is an important component of global land cover change resulting from economic drivers such as urbanization ...


High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change

Science, Vol. 342, No. 6160. (14 November 2013), pp. 850-853,


[Forests in Flux] Forests worldwide are in a state of flux, with accelerating losses in some regions and gains in others. Hansen et al. (p. 850) examined global Landsat data at a 30-meter spatial resolution to characterize forest extent, loss, and gain from 2000 to 2012. Globally, 2.3 million square kilometers of forest were lost during the 12-year study period and 0.8 million square kilometers of new forest were gained. The tropics exhibited both the greatest losses and the greatest gains (through ...


Toward a more scientific science

Science, Vol. 361, No. 6408. (20 September 2018), pp. 1194-1197,


When a series of scandals hit the field of psychology in 2011 and eroded trust in a lot of research results, some scientists proposed a radical solution: preregistration, or describing the research they plan to do, and how, before they gather a single piece of data. Researchers hope this will lead to more negative results being published. But most importantly, it limits what scientists can do with their data, making practices like p-hacking or HARKing, which can lead to results that ...


‘Journalologists’ use scientific methods to study academic publishing - Is their work improving science?

Science, Vol. 361, No. 6408. (19 September 2018), pp. 1180-1183,


[Summary] In 1989, the inaugural Peer Review Congress marked the birth of what is now sometimes called journalology. Its goal: improving the quality of at least a slice of the scientific record, in part by creating an evidence-based path from how a study was designed to its publication. That medical journals took a leading role isn't surprising: A sloppy paper on quantum dots has never killed anyone, but a clinical trial on a new cancer drug can mean the difference between ...


Payment for targeted grazing: integrating local shepherds into wildfire prevention

Forests, Vol. 9, No. 8. (30 July 2018), 464,


Wildfires are one of the most prominent risks for Mediterranean forests, reducing the flow of ecosystem services and representing a hazard for infrastructure and human lives. Several wildfire prevention programs in southern Europe are currently incorporating extensive livestock grazers in fire prevention activities to reduce the high costs of mechanical clearance. Among these the Andalusian network of grazed fuel breaks, the so-called RAPCA program, stands out for its dimension and stability over time. RAPCA currently works with 220 local shepherds who, ...


Goat grazing as a wildfire prevention tool: a basic review

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Vol. 7, No. 4. (01 August 2014), pp. 260-268,


Fuel treatments aimed at reducing both horizontal and vertical continuity in fuels are of paramount importance as a prevention measure against fire propagation. Possible techniques include pruning, thinning (mainly low thinning), mastication, prescribed burning, and prescribed (or targeted) grazing. Their main target is crown fire avoidance by treating surface fuels and promoting low density and vertically discontinuous stands, thus eliminating fuel ladders. Grazing is an effective, nearly carbon-neutral weed control technique which is cost-effective, nontoxic, and nonpolluting. Goat grazing is a ...


Global estimates of mortality associated with long-term exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 38. (18 September 2018), pp. 9592-9597,


[Significance] Exposure to outdoor concentrations of fine particulate matter is considered a leading global health concern, largely based on estimates of excess deaths using information integrating exposure and risk from several particle sources (outdoor and indoor air pollution and passive/active smoking). Such integration requires strong assumptions about equal toxicity per total inhaled dose. We relax these assumptions to build risk models examining exposure and risk information restricted to cohort studies of outdoor air pollution, now covering much of the global concentration range. ...


Wildfire susceptibility mapping: deterministic vs. stochastic approaches

Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 101 (March 2018), pp. 194-203,


[Highlights] [::] Application of non-linear methods for wildfire susceptibility mapping is carried out. [::] Performances of stochastic and deterministic approaches are compared. [::] The case study is performed on a highly fire-prone region of Portugal. [Abstract] Wildfire susceptibility is a measure of land propensity for the occurrence of wildfires based on terrain's intrinsic characteristics. In the present study, two stochastic approaches (i.e., extreme learning machine and random forest) for wildfire susceptibility mapping are compared versus a well established deterministic method. The same predisposing variables were combined ...


Aversion to ambiguity and model misspecification in dynamic stochastic environments

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 37. (11 September 2018), pp. 9163-9168,


[Significance] In many dynamic economic settings, a decision maker finds it challenging to quantify the uncertainty or assess the potential for mistakes in models. We explore alternative ways of acknowledging these challenges by drawing on insights from decision theory as conceptualized in statistics, engineering, and economics. We suggest tractable and revealing ways to incorporate behavioral responses to uncertainty, broadly conceived. Our analysis adopts recursive intertemporal preferences for decision makers that allow them to be ambiguity averse and concerned about the potential misspecification ...


A new objective method for spatial interpolation of meteorological variables from irregular networks applied to the estimation of monthly mean solar radiation, temperature, precipitation and windrun

Vol. 89/5 (1989), pp. 95-104


[Abstract] The use of multi-dimensional Laplacian smoothing splines to reliably estimate a variety of meteorological variables, including monthly mean solar radiation, temperature, precipitation and windrun at regional and continental scales across Australia from irregularly spaced data networks of varying quality is described. The method has implications for network design, and projected further developments include the incorporation of more detailed local physical effects, often relatable to a detailed digital elevation model, with a view to obtaining more robust models. The spatial interpolation ...


BIOCLIM – the first species distribution modelling package

In CSIROpedia (September 2018)


[Excerpt: The problem] Species distribution modelling (SDM, also known as ecological niche modelling or habitat suitability modelling) helps to show where species may occur under past, present or future conditions. Before BIOCLIM was created efforts had been made to relate species distributions to climatic conditions, but these had been too coarse to gain much acceptance. The lack of reliable estimates for climatic conditions at sites remote from meteorological stations was a major limitation. [The solution] Modern SDM began in January 1984 with ...


  1. Booth, T.H., Nix, H.A., Busby, J.R., Hutchinson, M.F., 2014. BIOCLIM: the first species distribution modelling package, its early applications and relevance to most current MaxEnt studies. Diversity and Distributions 20, 1-9. .
  2. Busby J. R., 1991. BIOCLIM – a bioclimate analysis and prediction system. In: Margules, C.R. and Austin, M.P. (Eds), Nature Conservation: Cost Effective Biological Surveys and Data Analysis. CSIRO, Melbourne, pp. 64–68.
  3. Hutchinson, M.

Why do tree species affect soils? The Warp and Woof of tree-soil interactions

In Plant-induced soil changes: Processes and feedbacks, Vol. 4 (1998), pp. 89-106


Many ideas have been advanced regarding how trees affect soils. Enough evidence is now available to evaluate the strength of these ideas and to consider interactions between tree species and soils in an evolutionary context. Forest floor mass commonly differs by about 20% for different species growing on the same site; differences of up to 5-fold have been reported. Litterfall mass and N content commonly differ by 20 to 30%, but larger differences are also common (especially with N-fixing species). The ...


Biogeomorphic impacts of invasive species

Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 45, No. 1. (23 November 2014), pp. 69-87,


Invasive species, often recognized as ecosystem engineers, can dramatically alter geomorphic processes and landforms. Our review shows that the biogeomorphic impacts of invasive species are common, but variable in magnitude or severity, ranging from simple acceleration or deceleration of preexisting geomorphic processes to landscape metamorphosis. Primary effects of invasive flora are bioconstruction and bioprotection, whereas primary effects of invasive fauna are bioturbation, bioerosion, and bioconstruction. Land-water interfaces seem particularly vulnerable to biogeomorphic impacts of invasive species. Although not different from biogeomorphic ...


Plants as river system engineers

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 39, No. 1. (January 2014), pp. 4-25,


Plants growing within river corridors both affect and respond to fluvial processes. Their above‐ground biomass modifies the flow field and retains sediment, whereas their below‐ground biomass affects the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the substrate and consequently the moisture regime and erosion susceptibility of the land surface. [\n] This paper reviews research that dates back to the 1950s on the geomorphological influence of vegetation within fluvial systems. During the late twentieth century this research was largely pursued through field observations, but during ...


Feedbacks between geomorphology and biota controlling Earth surface processes and landforms: a review of foundation concepts and current understandings

Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 106, No. 3-4. (16 June 2011), pp. 307-331,


This review article presents recent advances in the field of biogeomorphology related to the reciprocal coupling between Earth surface processes and landforms, and ecological and evolutionary processes. The aim is to present to the Earth Science community ecological and evolutionary concepts and related recent conceptual developments for linking geomorphology and biota. The novelty of the proposed perspective is that (i) in the presence of geomorphologic-engineer species, which modulate sediment and landform dynamics, natural selection operating at the scale of organisms may ...


Pest categorisation of Guignardia laricina

EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 6. (June 2018), e05303,


Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Guignardia laricina, a well‐defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Phyllostictaceae. The pathogen is regulated in Council Directive 2000/29/EC (Annex IAI) as a harmful organism whose introduction into the EU is banned. G. laricina is native to East Asia and causes a shoot blight disease of Larix spp. Major hosts of G. laricina are European larch (Larix decidua) and two North American ...


Life is too short to RTFM: how users relate to documentation and excess features in consumer products

Interacting with Computers, Vol. 28, No. 1. (January 2016), pp. 27-46,


This paper addresses two common problems that users of various products and interfaces encounter—over-featured interfaces and product documentation. Over-featured interfaces are seen as a problem as they can confuse and over-complicate everyday interactions. Researchers also often claim that users do not read product documentation, although they are often exhorted to ‘RTFM’ (read the field manual). We conducted two sets of studies with users which looked at the issues of both manuals and excess features with common domestic and personal products. The ...


Pest categorisation of Sphaerulina musiva

EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 4. (April 2018), e05247,


Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health Panel performed a pest categorisation of Sphaerulina musiva, a well‐defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Mycosphaerellaceae. Following a recent phylogenetic analysis of the genus Septoria and other closely related genera, a new name (S. musiva) was introduced for the species. The former species name Mycosphaerella populorum is used in the Council Directive 2000/29/EC. The pathogen is regulated in Annex IAI as a harmful organism whose introduction into the ...


Pest categorisation of Melampsora medusae

EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 7. (July 2018), e05354,


Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health Panel performed a pest categorisation of Melampsora medusae, a well‐defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Melampsoraceae. The pathogen is regulated in Annex IAI of Council Directive 2000/29/EC as a harmful organism whose introduction into the EU is banned. M. medusae is a heteroecious rust fungus with Populus spp. as primary telial hosts and various conifers (Larix, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Abies, Picea and Tsuga spp.) as secondary aecial hosts. M. ...


Pest categorisation of Mycodiella laricis‐leptolepidis

EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 4. (April 2018), e05246,


Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH) performed a pest categorisation of Mycodiella laricis‐leptolepidis, a well‐defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Mycosphaerellaceae. The former species name Mycosphaerella laricis‐leptolepis is used in the Council Directive 2000/29/EC. The pathogen is regulated in Annex IAI as a harmful organism whose introduction into the EU is banned. M. laricis‐leptolepidis is native to East Asia and causes a disease known as needle cast of Japanese larch (Larix ...


Optimized arylomycins are a new class of Gram-negative antibiotics

Nature, Vol. 561, No. 7722. (12 September 2018), pp. 189-194,


Multidrug-resistant bacteria are spreading at alarming rates, and despite extensive efforts no new class of antibiotic with activity against Gram-negative bacteria has been approved in over fifty years. Natural products and their derivatives have a key role in combating Gram-negative pathogens. Here we report chemical optimization of the arylomycins—a class of natural products with weak activity and limited spectrum—to obtain G0775, a molecule with potent, broad-spectrum activity against Gram-negative bacteria. G0775 inhibits the essential bacterial type I signal peptidase, a new ...


Research and societal benefits of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility

BioScience, Vol. 54, No. 6. (1 June 2004), pp. 486-487,[0486:rasbot];2


[Excerpt] [...] Globally, natural history collections and herbaria contain a far vaster amount of information, but because it is not dynamically accessible, even many taxonomists do not know it exists. The good news is that CONABIO's concept is now, in effect, being replicated worldwide through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), an Internet- accessible interoperable network of biodiversity databases and information technology tools. In February 2004, GBIF went online with a prototype data portal ( for simultaneously accessing data from the ...


A proposal for a scalable and semantically interoperable family of indices of taxa richness

In Database and classification system of different types of Public Goods and Ecosystem Services in relation to farming/forestry systems - PEGASUS Deliverable 2.2 (2016), pp. 79-86


[Excerpt] [\n] [...] In this study, we introduce a novel estimate of richness of forest tree genera, based on a harmonised dimensionless family of indices at the continental scale. Each index ranges from 0 (null richness) up to 1 (maximum potential richness) and estimates the richness of tree genera under the assumption of a uniform sampling effort, explicitlydeclared. [\n] Given a category of relevant taxa (here represented by the forest tree taxa for which harmonised pan-European information is available), the family of indicesis designed to cover with variable ...


Database and classification system of different types of Public Goods and Ecosystem Services in relation to farming/forestry systems - PEGASUS Deliverable 2.2



[Excerpt: Executive summary] The deliverable represents a step further towards the integrated analysis of agriculture and forestry management and ESS/PG delivery. It contains a schematic review of available information (indicators, proxies) to map ESS/PG that characterise the provision of Environmentally and Socially Beneficial Outcomes as identified in the Pegasus project. Only those ESS/PG that can be mapped through geo-spatial layers are listed. Each ESS/PG is described in detail and critically analysed, in particular with reference to its capacity to capture information ...


Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on the implementation of the Forest Focus scheme according to Regulation (EC) No 2152/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 November 2003 concerning monitoring of forests and environmental interactions in the Community (Forest Focus) SEC(2008) 30

No. COM(2008) 006 final. (22 January 2008)


[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [Introduction and scope] This report responds to the reporting requirements of Article 19 of Regulation 2152/2003. This regulation established a Community scheme (hereinafter referred to as 'Forest Focus') for broad based harmonised and comprehensive long-term monitoring of the condition of forests for a period of 4 years from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2006. [\n] This regulation was repealed by Regulation (EC) No 614/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the Financial Instrument for the Environment (LIFE+). As ...


Intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe: 1 - Objectives, set-up and evaluation strategy

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 174, No. 1-3. (February 2003), pp. 77-95,
Keywords: data   ecosystem   europe   fimci   forest-resources   monitoring  


In order to contribute to a better understanding of the impact of air pollution and other environmental factors on forest ecosystems, a Pan-European Programme for Intensive and Continuous Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems has been implemented in 1994. Results of the Programme must contribute to a European wide overview of impacts of air pollution and the further development of its control strategies, being described in air pollution protocols. Objectives of the Intensive Monitoring Programme related to air pollution are the assessment of: ...


FutMon Scientific Report - Further development and implementation of an EU-level forest monitoring system (FutMon)

edited by Martin Lorenz


[Excerpt: Conclusion] The implementation of the LIFE project “FutMon” by a consortium of 38 partners in 22 EU-Member States shows that the responsible Ministries and research centres in Europe are highly motivated to carry out forest monitoring based on a harmonized pan-European system which was further developed to comply with latest information needs of environment politics. Results of the further development are [::] A revised large-scale (Level I) forest monitoring involving an increased number of plots of national forest inventories (NFIs) and contributions to the NFI harmonisation; [::] ...


Ecological interactions between cork oak (Quercus suber L.) and stone pine (Pinus pinea L.): results from a pot experiment

Forests, Vol. 9, No. 9. (01 September 2018), 534,


Portuguese cork oak (Quercus suber L.) extended mortality and lack of regeneration have been the drivers of important changes in the traditional cork oak woodlands (savanna-like) montado. The decrease in tree cover fosters the mixture with stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) for pine-nut production providing shelter for oak regeneration. The use of nurse species, namely pines, to help Quercus spp. regeneration is known, but whether cork oak could be favoured by the mixture with stone pine remains a question. A pot ...


A 30-m landsat-derived cropland extent product of Australia and China using random forest machine learning algorithm on Google Earth Engine cloud computing platform

ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vol. 144 (October 2018), pp. 325-340,


[Highlights] [::] Demonstrated a paradigm shift in continent-scale 30-m Landsat cropland mapping. [::] Captured spatial extent of very small to very large farms in Australia and China. [::] Applied Random Forest machine learning algorithm on cloud computing platform. [::] Overall accuracies of 30-m cropland products of Australia and China exceeded 94%. [::] Errors of omissions of cropland class were 1.2% for Australia and 20% for China. [::] Product view at: download at: [Abstract] Mapping high resolution (30-m or better) cropland extent over very large areas such as ...


HISDAC-US, historical settlement data compilation for the conterminous United States over 200 years

Scientific Data, Vol. 5 (4 September 2018), 180175,


Human settlement plays a key role in understanding social processes such as urbanization and interactions between human and environmental systems but not much is known about the landscape evolution before the era of operational remote sensing technology. In this study, housing and property databases are used to create new gridded settlement layers describing human settlement processes at fine spatial and temporal resolution in the conterminous United States between 1810 and 2015. The main products are a raster composite layer representing the ...


Wilderness register and indicator for Europe

(October 2013)


[Excerpt] [Executive summary] The main aim of the contract was to increase data availability on wilderness in Europe. The Guidelines on management of wilderness and wild areas in Natura 2000 (DG Environment, in prep.) described the benefits of wilderness management within the framework of the EU Biodiversity strategy, analysed the pressures affecting wilderness areas and provided guidelines on their management and protection, largely based on best practice examples of wilderness and wild areas throughout Europe. However, an overview of remaining areas of wilderness and wildlands at the European ...


People in the EU - statistics on demographic changes

In Statistics Explained (2018), 41896


[Excerpt] This is one of a set of statistical articles that forms Eurostat’s flagship publication People in the EU: who are we and how do we live?; it presents a range of statistics that cover the characteristics of the demographic situation in the European Union (EU). [Main statistical findings] Statistics on the structure of the EU’s population and those measuring the change in the number of inhabitants have received growing attention from policymakers in recent decades, as it has become apparent that demographic developments ...

Visual summary


Enormous wildfires spark scramble to improve fire models

Nature, Vol. 561, No. 7721. (31 August 2018), pp. 16-17,


Blazes in North America are becoming larger and more powerful. [Excerpt] [...] “Something is definitely different, and it raises questions about how much we really know,” says Max Moritz, a fire scientist at the University of California, Santa Barbara. [...] Researchers have been at a loss to explain a flurry of unusual fire behaviour in California in recent years: wildfires that burn hot throughout the night instead of settling down, as many used to; blazes that race down hillsides faster than before; ...


Council Regulation (EC) No 2012/2002 of 11 November 2002 establishing the European Union Solidarity Fund

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 45, No. L 311. (14 November 2002), pp. 3-8


[Excerpt] [...] [:Article 1] A European Union Solidarity Fund, hereinafter referred to as "the Fund", is hereby established to enable the Community to respond in a rapid, efficient and flexible manner to emergency situations under the terms of this Regulation. [Article 2] [::1] At the request of a Member State or country involved in accession negotiations with the European Union, hereinafter referred to as "beneficiary State", assistance from the Fund may be mainly mobilised when a major natural disaster with serious repercussions on living conditions, the ...


Commission Regulation (EC) No 804/94 of 11 April 1994 laying down certain detailed rules for the application of Council Regulation (EEC) No 2158/92 as regards forest-fire information systems

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 37, No. L 93. (12 April 1994), pp. 11-15


[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [Article 1] [::1] Member States shall collect a set of information on forest fires enabling them to meet the objectives laid down in Article 5 (2) of Regulation (EEC) No 2158/92. [::2] The set of information shall contain at least a number of standard items, comparable at Community level, hereinafter called the 'minimum common core of information on forest fires', as set out in Annex I. [::3] The collection of such a set of information may be confined to high and medium-risk areas ...


Regulation (EU) No 377/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 April 2014 establishing the Copernicus Programme and repealing Regulation (EU) No 911/2010 Text with EEA relevance

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 57, No. L 122. (24 April 2014), pp. 44-66


[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [:Article 1: Subject matter] This Regulation establishes Copernicus, the Union Earth observation and monitoring programme, (Copernicus), and lays down the rules for its implementation. [:Article 2: Scope] 1. Copernicus is a civil, user driven programme under civil control, building on the existing national and European capacities, as well as ensuring continuity with the activities achieved under the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security. [\n] 2. Copernicus consists of the following components: [::(a)] a service component ensuring delivery of information in the following ...


Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 45, No. L 31. (1 February 2002), pp. 1-24


[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [Aim and scope] [::1] This Regulation provides the basis for the assurance of a high level of protection of human health and consumers' interest in relation to food, taking into account in particular the diversity in the supply of food including traditional products, whilst ensuring the effective functioning of the internal market. It establishes common principles and responsibilities, the means to provide a strong science base, efficient organisational arrangements and procedures to underpin decision-making in matters of food and feed safety. [::2] ...


How intermittent breaks in interaction improve collective intelligence

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 35. (28 August 2018), pp. 8734-8739,


[Significance] Many human endeavors—from teams and organizations to crowds and democracies—rely on solving problems collectively. Prior research has shown that when people interact and influence each other while solving complex problems, the average problem-solving performance of the group increases, but the best solution of the group actually decreases in quality. We find that when such influence is intermittent it improves the average while maintaining a high maximum performance. We also show that storing solutions for quick recall is similar to constant social ...


Effects of environmental stressors on daily governance

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 35. (28 August 2018), pp. 8710-8715,


[Significance] Public servants are often first responders to disasters, and the day-to-day completion of their jobs aids public health and safety. However, with respect to their individual psychological and physiological responses to environmental stressors, public sector workers may be harmed in much the same way as other citizens in society. We find that exposure to hotter temperatures reduces the activity of two groups of regulators—police officers and food safety inspectors—at times that the risks they are tasked with overseeing are highest. Given ...


Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - An EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change

No. COM(2013) 216 final. (16 April 2013)


[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [Introduction: dealing with a changing climate] The consequences of climate change are increasingly being felt in Europe and worldwide. The average global temperature, currently around 0.8°C above pre-industrial levels, continues to rise[1]. Some natural processes are being altered, precipitation patterns are changing, glaciers are melting, sea levels are rising. [\n] To avoid the most serious risks of climate change and in particular large-scale irreversible impacts, global warming must be limited to below 2ºC above pre-industrial level. Climate change mitigation must therefore remain ...


Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council and the Committee of the Regions - Strengthening EU Disaster Management: rescEU Solidarity with Responsibility Solidarity with Responsibility

No. COM(2017) 773 final. (23 November 2017)


[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [Introduction] Europe is increasingly facing the dramatic impacts of intense and unpredictable extreme weather events and earthquakes with ensuing loss of life, destruction of property and cultural heritage. This has had a tragic cost on lives and livelihoods. The nations of Europe decided to build the European Union (EU) to promote their common good and to face adversities together, each becoming stronger through unity and solidarity. A Europe that protects is one that has the means to respond in a decisive ...


Proposal for a DECISION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL amending Decision No 1313/2013/EU on a Union Civil Protection Mechanism

No. COM(2017) 772 final. (23 November 2017)


[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [Reasons for and objectives of the proposal] The proposal is intended to introduce some targeted changes to Council Decision No 1313/2013/EU (‘the Decision’) on a Union Civil Protection Mechanism (‘Union Mechanism’), under which the European Union supports, coordinates and supplements the action of Member States in the field of civil protection to prevent, prepare for and respond to natural and man-made disasters within and outside the Union. Building on the principles of solidarity and shared responsibility, the overall objective of ...


How working as a research technician can bolster your scientific career

Nature, Vol. 560, No. 7719. (21 August 2018), pp. 517-519,


A technician job can become a satisfying career — or act as a solid stepping stone. [Excerpt] [...] Research technicians in academia, industry, the non-profit sector and government do much of the daily leg-work of science. Their tasks include analysing soil or rock samples, testing medical devices, helping to design bioreactors and optimizing the shelf life of reagents. Titles vary almost as much as the job descriptions. Examples include ‘research technologist’, ‘research associate’, ‘research scientist’ and ‘member of the technical staff’. [...] ...


No more excuses for non-reproducible methods

Nature, Vol. 560, No. 7719. (22 August 2018), pp. 411-411,


Online technologies make it easy to share precise experimental protocols — and doing so is essential to modern science, says Lenny Teytelman. [Excerpt] [...] Protocols — precise step-by-step recipes for repeating experiments — are missing from published research more often than not, and even the original researchers can have trouble pinpointing particulars years later. [...] But the gap between meticulous methods and adequate description remains. To fill it, efforts must start at the bench, well before results are ready to be written ...


Referees should exercise their rights

Nature, Vol. 560, No. 7719. (21 August 2018), pp. 409-409,


Peer reviewers should not feel pressured to produce a report if key data are missing. [Excerpt] [...] Editors try to ensure that a manuscript contains sufficient detail and supporting data to allow a rigorous evaluation, while recognizing that access to some data may be restricted because of privacy concerns. We urge referees to check whether they have all the data and code they need before drafting their review. They should never feel pressured to supply a report if key information is lacking ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
Search within the whole INRMM meta-information database:
Search only within the INRMM-MiD publication records:
Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.