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Predicting conifer establishment post wildfire in mixed conifer forests of the North American Mediterranean-climate zone

Ecosphere, Vol. 7, No. 12. (December 2016), e01609,


Due to fire suppression policies, timber harvest, and other management practices over the last century, many low‐ to mid‐elevation forests in semiarid parts of the western United States have accumulated high fuel loads and dense, multi‐layered canopies that are dominated by shade‐tolerant and fire‐sensitive conifers. To a great extent, the future status of western US forests will depend on tree species’ responses to patterns and trends in fire activity and fire behavior and postfire management decisions. This is especially the case ...


Uncertainty in forecasts of long-run economic growth

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (14 May 2018), 201713628,


[Significance] This study develops estimates of uncertainty in projections of global and regional per-capita economic growth rates through 2100, comparing estimates from expert forecasts and an econometric approach designed to analyze long-run trends and variability. Estimates from both methods indicate substantially higher uncertainty than is assumed in current studies of climate change impacts, damages, and adaptation. Results from this study suggest a greater than 35% probability that emissions concentrations will exceed those assumed in the most severe of the available climate change ...


People in the EU - statistics on demographic changes

In Statistics Explained (2017), 41896


[Excerpt] This is one of a set of statistical articles that forms Eurostat’s flagship publication People in the EU: who are we and how do we live?; it presents a range of statistics that cover the characteristics of the demographic situation in the European Union (EU). [\n] A paper edition of the publication was released in 2015. In late 2017, a decision was taken to update the online version of the publication (subject to data availability). Readers should note that while many of ...

Visual summary


Gully head modelling: a Mediterranean badland case study

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms (11 May 2018),


Predicting the location of gully heads in various environments is an important step towards predicting gully erosion rates. So far, field data collection and modelling of topographic thresholds for gully head development has mainly focussed on gullies that formed in forested areas, rangelands, pastures and cropland. Such information for gullies in badlands however is very scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to extend the database on gully head topographical thresholds through data collection in a badland area and to improve the prediction ...


Positive biodiversity-productivity relationships in forests: climate matters

Biology Letters, Vol. 14, No. 4. (04 April 2018), 20170747,


While it is widely acknowledged that forest biodiversity contributes to climate change mitigation through improved carbon sequestration, conversely how climate affects tree species diversity–forest productivity relationships is still poorly understood. We combined the results of long-term experiments where forest mixtures and corresponding monocultures were compared on the same site to estimate the yield of mixed-species stands at a global scale, and its response to climatic factors. We found positive mixture effects on productivity using a meta-analysis of 126 case studies established ...


Valuing nature's contributions to people: the IPBES approach

Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Vol. 26-27 (June 2017), pp. 7-16,


[Highlights] [::] Nature and its contributions to people’s quality of life are associated with a wide diversity of values. [::] IPBES embraces this diversity of values, as well as the need to integrate and bridge them in its assessments. [::] Uncovering the values of nature’s contributions to people (NCP) can bridge notions of nature and a good quality of life. [::] Transformation towards sustainability requires addressing power relations among different perspectives on the values of NCP. [::] Intrinsic, instrumental and relational values need to be acknowledged ...


Distribution maps of forest tree species

In ICP Forests Projectlist (2015), 64


[Excerpt: Project description] The European Commission, Joint Research Centre, hosts the European Forest Data Centre (EFDAC at ) of the Forest Information System for Europe (FISE). The EFDAC‐FISE platform is envisioned to transparently integrate information referring to forest resources in Europe, including taxa‐specific information. The exercise involves the integration of: [::1] a harmonized collection of reference maps describing the European‐wide distribution of forest tree species along with their habitat suitability (both current and under varying climate change scenarios); [::2] a detailed analysis of the implications that the uncertainties – ...


  1. de Rigo, D., Barredo, J. I., Busetto, L., Caudullo, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., 2013. Continental-scale living forest biomass and carbon stock: a robust fuzzy ensemble of IPCC Tier 1 maps for Europe. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology 413, 271-284. , INRMM-MiD:12541209 .
  2. de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Busetto, L., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Mar. 2014. Supporting EFSA assessment of the EU environmental suitability for exotic forestry pests: final report. EFSA Supporting Publications 11 (3),

First- and second-order conservative remapping schemes for grids in spherical coordinates

Monthly Weather Review In Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 127, No. 9. (1 September 1999), pp. 2204-2210,<2204:fasocr>;2


Coupling atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface models requires a means for remapping fields between grids in an accurate and conservative manner. A method is described here for computing interpolation weights for first- and second-order conservative remappings. The method is completely general and can be used for any grid on a sphere. ...


Has artificial intelligence become alchemy?

Science, Vol. 360, No. 6388. (04 May 2018), pp. 478-478,


Ali Rahimi, a researcher in artificial intelligence (AI) at Google in San Francisco, California, has charged that machine learning algorithms, in which computers learn through trial and error, have become a form of "alchemy." Researchers, he says, do not know why some algorithms work and others don't, nor do they have rigorous criteria for choosing one AI architecture over another. Now, in a paper presented on 30 April at the International Conference on Learning Representations in Vancouver, Canada, Rahimi and his ...


Sea-level rise scenarios and coastal risk management

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 5, No. 3. (1 March 2015), pp. 188-190,


The IPCC's global mean sea-level rise scenarios do not necessarily provide the right information for coastal decision-making and risk management. [\n] Global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise is a major concern for coastal managers and society at large. Since 1988, the IPCC has engaged in a strenuous effort to tackle this kind of challenge at the interface of science and practical decision-making. In this role, the IPCC has recently updated its scenarios of GMSL rise with the release of its Fifth Assessment Report ...


Contribution of Antarctica to past and future sea-level rise

Nature, Vol. 531, No. 7596. (31 March 2016), pp. 591-597,


Polar temperatures over the last several million years have, at times, been slightly warmer than today, yet global mean sea level has been 6–9 metres higher as recently as the Last Interglacial (130,000 to 115,000 years ago) and possibly higher during the Pliocene epoch (about three million years ago). In both cases the Antarctic ice sheet has been implicated as the primary contributor, hinting at its future vulnerability. Here we use a model coupling ice sheet and climate dynamics—including previously underappreciated processes ...


Asylum applications respond to temperature fluctuations

Science, Vol. 358, No. 6370. (21 December 2017), pp. 1610-1614,


[Warming stresses developing countries] Weather-induced conflicts in developing countries spill over to developed countries through asylum applications. One approach to estimating the future impacts of climate change is to look at the effects of weather fluctuations. These transient shocks can be interpreted analytically as randomly distributed treatments applied to countries around the world. Missirian and Schlenker analyzed the relation between these localized shocks to agriculture and applications by that country's migrants for asylum in the European Union. When temperatures in the source ...


Extreme wildfire events are linked to global-change-type droughts in the northern Mediterranean

Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 18, No. 3. (16 March 2018), pp. 847-856,


Increasing drought conditions under global warming are expected to alter the frequency and distribution of large and high-intensity wildfires. However, our understanding of the impact of increasing drought on extreme wildfires events remains incomplete. Here, we analyzed the weather conditions associated with the extreme wildfires events that occurred in Mediterranean France during the exceptionally dry summers of 2003 and 2016. We identified that these fires were related to two distinct shifts in the fire weather space towards fire weather conditions that ...


Forest condition in Europe: 2017 technical report of ICP Forests - Report under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP)



[Summary] The International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) is one of the most diverse programmes within the Working Group on Effects (WGE) under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). To provide a regular overview of the programme’s activities, the ICP Forests Programme Co-ordinating Centre (PCC) yearly publishes an ICP Forests Technical Report which summarises research highlights and provides an opportunity for all participating countries to report on their national ICP Forests activities. The PCC also invites ...


The significance of land cover delineation on soil erosion assessment

Environmental Management (2018), pp. 1-20,


The study aims to evaluate the significance of land cover delineation on soil erosion assessment. To that end, RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) was implemented at the Upper Acheloos River catchment, Western Central Greece, annually and multi-annually for the period 1965–92. The model estimates soil erosion as the linear product of six factors (R, K, LS, C, and P) considering the catchment’s climatic, pedological, topographic, land cover, and anthropogenic characteristics, respectively. The C factor was estimated using six alternative land ...


Temperature accelerates the rate fields become forests

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (16 April 2018), 201716665,


[Significance] The transition of abandoned fields into forests (secondary succession) has long informed ecologists’ understanding of community assembly and species interactions. Intriguingly, rates of secondary succession show a striking latitudinal pattern, with dominance by woody species (>50% cover) taking less than a decade in the southern United States, and up to 60 years in New England. We used a large-scale experimental network to test how multiple drivers (climate, soils, and the identity of dominant species) influence field-to-forest transitions. We found consistent evidence ...


Portugal wildfire management in a new era assessing fire risks, resources and reforms

(February 2018)


[Executive summary] Portugal has one of the highest forest fire risk rankings in Europe. Fire researchers all point to the same combination of contributing factors: shifting demographics with population moving from rural to urban areas, changes in land use with more agricultural and forested areas left unattended and not being maintained, and fragmentation of land ownership patterns that discourage investment in forest management and fire planning. The trend of annual burned area for the last four decades confirms a new level in fire activity in Portugal, despite ...


  1. Almeida, J., Relvas, P., Silva, L., Catry, F., Rego, F., Santos, T. 2007. Portuguese lookout towers network optimization using automatic positioning algorithms. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Wildland Fire Conference, 13-17 May, Seville, Spain. .
  2. Beighley, M., Hyde, A. C., 2009. Systemic risk and Portugal's forest fire defense strategy - An assessment of wildfire management and response capability.
  3. Beighley, M., Quesinberry, M., 2004. USA-Portugal wildland fire technical

Assessment and validation of wildfire susceptibility and hazard in Portugal

Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 10, No. 3. (16 March 2010), pp. 485-497,


A comprehensive methodology to assess forest fire susceptibility, that uses variables of strong spatial correlation, is presented and applied for the Portuguese mainland. Our study is based on a thirty-year chronological series of burnt areas. The first twenty years (1975–1994) are used for statistical modelling, and the last ten (1995–2004) are used for the independent validation of results. The wildfire affected areas are crossed with a set of independent layers that are assumed to be relevant wildfire conditioning factors: elevation, slope, ...


Global MODIS fraction of green vegetation cover for monitoring abrupt and gradual vegetation changes

Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, No. 4. (23 April 2018), 653,


The presence and distribution of green vegetation cover in the biosphere are of paramount importance in investigating cause-effect phenomena at the land/atmosphere interface, estimating primary production rates as part of global carbon and water cycle assessments and evaluating soil protection and land use change over time. The fraction of green vegetation cover (FCover) as estimated from satellite observations has already been demonstrated to be an extraordinarily useful product for understanding vegetation cover changes, for supporting ecosystem service assessments over areas with ...


Long-term changes of the wildland–urban interface in the Polish Carpathians

ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, Vol. 7, No. 4. (01 April 2018), 137,


The Wildland–Urban Interface (WUI) is the area where houses and wildland vegetation meet or intermingle, which causes many environmental problems. The current WUI is widespread in many regions, but it is unclear how the WUI evolved, especially in regions where both houses and forest cover have increased. Here we compared WUI change in the Polish Carpathians for 1860 and 2013 in two study areas with different land use history. Our western study area experienced gradual forest increase and housing growth over ...


Alternative pathways to the 1.5 °C target reduce the need for negative emission technologies

Nature Climate Change (13 April 2018),


Mitigation scenarios that achieve the ambitious targets included in the Paris Agreement typically rely on greenhouse gas emission reductions combined with net carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere, mostly accomplished through large-scale application of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, and afforestation. However, CDR strategies face several difficulties such as reliance on underground CO2 storage and competition for land with food production and biodiversity protection. The question arises whether alternative deep mitigation pathways exist. Here, using an integrated assessment model, ...


Mapping the interaction between development aid and stunting in Nigeria

In 28th IUSSP International Population Conference (2017)


For meeting sustainable development goals (SDGs) an improved understanding of geographic differences in health status, wealth and access to resources is crucial. The equitable and effcient allocation of international aid relies on knowing where funds are needed most. For instance, aid for poverty alleviation or financial access improvement requires knowledge of where the poor are. Unfortunately, detailed, reliable and timely information on the spatial distribution and characteristics of intended aid recipients in many low income countries are rarely available. This lack ...


  1. AidData, 2016. Nigeria AIMS geocoded research release, version 1.3.1. In: AidData Datasets. AidData, Williamsburg, VA and Washington, DC. , , INRMM-MiD:14546755
  2. Alegana, V. A., Atkinson, P. M., Pezzulo, C., Sorichetta, A., Weiss, D., Bird, T., Erbach-Schoenberg, E., Tatem, A. J., 2015. Fine resolution mapping of population age-structures for health and development applications. Journal of The Royal Society Interface 12 (105), 20150073+. , INRMM-MiD:14546782

Climate-vegetation-fire interactions and feedbacks: trivial detail or major barrier to projecting the future of the Earth system?

Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 6. (1 November 2016), pp. 910-931,


Fire is a complex process involving interactions and feedbacks between biological, socioeconomic, and physical drivers across multiple spatial and temporal scales. This complexity limits our ability to incorporate fire into Earth system models and project future fire activity under climate change. Conceptual, empirical, and process models have identified the mechanisms and processes driving fire regimes, and provide a useful basis to consider future fire activity. However, these models generally deal with only one component of fire regimes, fire frequency, and do ...


Predicting climate change effects on wildfires requires linking processes across scales

Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 1. (January 2011), pp. 99-112,


Accurate process‐based prediction of climate change effects on wildfires requires coupling processes across orders of magnitude of time and space scales, because climate dynamic processes operate at relatively large scales (e.g., hemispherical and centennial), but fire behavior processes operate at relatively small scales (e.g., molecules and microseconds). In this review, we outline some of the current understanding of the processes by which climate/meteorology controls wildfire behavior by focusing on four critical stages of wildfire development: (1) fuel drying, (2) ignition, (3) ...


A lightning parameterization for the ECMWF integrated forecasting system

Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 144, No. 9. (September 2016), pp. 3057-3075,
Keywords: ecmwf   forecast   lightning   meteorology  


A new parameterization able to diagnose lightning flash densities is proposed for the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System, including its tangent-linear and adjoint versions. Total lightning densities are expressed as a function of hydrometeors contents, convective available potential energy, and cloud-base height output by the convective parameterization. Potential future applications range from the computation of NOx emissions by lightning in atmospheric chemistry models, severe convection forecasting, and data assimilation. In this study, a decade-long experiment is used to calibrate the simulated global ...


Projected increase in lightning strikes in the United States due to global warming

Science, Vol. 346, No. 6211. (13 November 2014), pp. 851-854,


[Abstract] Lightning plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and in the initiation of wildfires, but the impact of global warming on lightning rates is poorly constrained. Here we propose that the lightning flash rate is proportional to the convective available potential energy (CAPE) times the precipitation rate. Using observations, the product of CAPE and precipitation explains 77% of the variance in the time series of total cloud-to-ground lightning flashes over the contiguous United States (CONUS). Storms convert CAPE times precipitated water ...


A projected decrease in lightning under climate change

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 8, No. 3. (12 February 2018), pp. 210-213,


Lightning strongly influences atmospheric chemistry1,2,3, and impacts the frequency of natural wildfires4. Most previous studies project an increase in global lightning with climate change over the coming century1,5,6,7, but these typically use parameterizations of lightning that neglect cloud ice fluxes, a component generally considered to be fundamental to thunderstorm charging8. As such, the response of lightning to climate change is uncertain. Here, we compare lightning projections for 2100 using two parameterizations: the widely used cloud-top height (CTH) approach9, and a new ...


A data-driven approach to assess large fire size generation in Greece

Natural Hazards, Vol. 88, No. 3. (2017), pp. 1591-1607,


Identifying factors and drivers which control large fire size generation is critical for planning fire management activities. This study attempts to determine the role of fire suppression tactics and behavior, weather, topography and landscape features on two different datasets of large fire size (500–1000 ha) and very large fire size (>1000 ha) compared to two datasets of small fire size (<50 ha) which occurred in Greece, during the period 1984–2009. In this context, we used a logistic regression (LR) analysis and ...


How wildfire risk is related to urban planning and Fire Weather Index in SE France (1990–2013)

Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 621 (April 2018), pp. 120-129,


[Highlights] [::] Land use planning in SE France led to increased housing density in 1990-2012 and maintained WUI wildfire risk constant. [::] The number of buildings increased by 30% but WUI area increased by less than 5% as housing density increased. [::] Fire frequency and burned area increase substantially as Fire Weather Index surpasses a threshold value of 90. [Abstract] Wildfires burn > 450,000 ha of forest every year in Euro-Mediterranean countries. Many fires originate in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) where housing density and weather ...


Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland–Urban Interface areas in Europe

Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 172 (May 2016), pp. 112-126,


[Highlights] [::] A European Wildland–Urban Interface (WUI) map was presented. [::] The European WUI areas have been correlated with occurrence of large burned surfaces. [::] Peri-urban areas and Mediterranean touristic areas show strong co-occurrence of WUI and fires. [::] Burned surface probabilities within 5000 m of the WUI areas are estimated to map fire risk. [Abstract] Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape ...


Impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on European climate

Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 45, No. 3. (11 September 2007), pp. n/a-n/a,


El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is arguably the most important global climate pattern. While the effects in the Pacific–North American sector and the tropical regions are relatively well understood, the impacts on the circulation in the North Atlantic–European sector are discussed more controversially. Studies from the past 10 years demonstrate that ENSO does affect European climate. However, some of the effects undergo a seasonal modulation or are nonlinear. The signal can be modified by other factors and might be nonstationary on multidecadal ...


The seasonal effects of ENSO on European precipitation: observational analysis

Journal of Climate, Vol. 27, No. 17. (13 September 2014), pp. 6423-6438,


An analysis and characterization of seasonal changes in the atmospheric teleconnection between ENSO and western European precipitation, as well as atmospheric conditions over the North Atlantic and Europe, are presented. Significant ENSO-associated changes in precipitation are evident during the boreal spring and fall seasons, marginal during boreal summer, and absent during boreal winter. The spring and fall precipitation anomalies are accompanied by statistically significant ENSO-related changes in large-scale fields over the North Atlantic and Europe. These seasonal teleconnections appear to be ...


Pathways limiting warming to 1.5°C: a tale of turning around in no time?

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 376, No. 2119. (02 April 2018), 20160457,


We explore the feasibility of limiting global warming to 1.5°C without overshoot and without the deployment of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies. For this purpose, we perform a sensitivity analysis of four generic emissions reduction measures to identify a lower bound on future CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes. Final energy demand reductions and electrification of energy end uses as well as decarbonization of electricity and non-electric energy supply are all considered. We find the lower bound of ...


How cleaner air changes the climate

Science, Vol. 360, No. 6385. (13 April 2018), pp. 148-150,


Aerosols have a strong influence on the present climate, but this influence will likely be reduced over the coming decades as air pollution measures are implemented around the world. At a global level, aerosols have helped to reduce the warming effect from greenhouse gas emissions, and necessary reductions in air pollution may thus make it harder to achieve ambitious global climate and environmental aims, such as the Paris Agreement's 2°C target. Furthermore, the local nature of air pollution means that the ...


Microbial oxidation of lithospheric organic carbon in rapidly eroding tropical mountain soils

Science, Vol. 360, No. 6385. (12 April 2018), pp. 209-212,


[Microbes eat rocks and leave carbon dioxide] The reaction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with silicate rocks provides a carbon sink that helps counterbalance the release of CO2 by volcanic degassing. However, some types of rocks contain petrogenic organic carbon, the oxidation of which adds CO2 to the atmosphere, counteracting the drawdown by silicates. Hemingway et al. present evidence from the rapidly eroding Central Range of Taiwan showing that microbes oxidize roughly two-thirds of the petrogenic organic carbon there and that the ...


Eroding mountains could release, not trap, greenhouse gases



[Excerpt] The hills are hiding a carbon cache. For decades, scientists believed that the erosion of mountains caused carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere to drop, as silicate rocks newly exposed to rainwater would “weather,” taking up carbon in carbonate minerals that would sluice down rivers and be sequestered on the sea floor. [\n] But a new line of research, published this week in Science, is complicating that picture. A team of scientists has found that, thanks to opportunistic microbes, some mountain ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 45

(February 2018)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 44

(February 2018)


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 43

(February 2018)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   viburnum-spp   vicia-faba   vietnam   vinca-spp   vineyards   violin   viral-disease   virgin-forest   virola-koschnyi   virus   viscum-album   visual-assessment   visual-interpretation   visual-notation   visualization   vitality   vitex-keniensis   vitis-spp   vochysia-divergens   vochysia-ferruginea   vochysia-guatemalensis   volatiles   volcanic-eruptions   volunteered-geographic-information   vulnerability   vulpes-vulpes   walnut   walnut-leaf   warming   washingtonia-filifera   washingtonia-robusta   water   water-balance   water-erosion   water-impoundment   water-pollution   water-potential   water-quality   water-reservoir-management   water-reservoir-network   water-resources   water-resources-management   water-scarcity   water-security   water-storage   water-stress   water-use-efficiency   waterlogging   waves-energy   weather-modification   web-and-information-technologies   web-coverage-services   web-map-services   web-processing-services   web-services   weibull-distribution   weighting   wepp   west-africa   west-antartica   western-alps   western-asia   western-europe   western-mediterranean   westringia-fruticosa   wetland-investigations   wetlands   wheat   wicked-problem   wide-scale   wide-scale-transdisciplinary-modelling-for-environment   wide-vs-large-scale   widespread-plant-species   wiesa   wiki-communication   wild-service-tree   wilderness   wildfires   wildland-urban-interface   wilt   wind   wind-damage   wind-energy   wind-machines   wind-model   windows   windstorm   windthrow   wine-barrel   winter-robustness   wisteria-sinensis   wollemia-nobilis   women   wood-instrument   wood-market   wood-pellet   wood-production   wood-properties   wood-shreds  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 42

(February 2018)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   tuscany   tuta-absoluta   twig-dieback   two-dimensional-gas-chromatography   two-stage-peer-review   udig   uganda   ukraine   ulex-europaeus   ulmus-americana   ulmus-carpinifolia   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-laevis   ulmus-minor   ulmus-parvifolia   ulmus-procera   ulmus-pumila   ulmus-rubra   ulmus-spp   ulmus-thomasii   umbellularia-californica   umbrella-species   un-framework-convention-on-climate-change   uncertainty   uncertainty-propagation   underfitting   understorey   understorey-species   undisturbed-habitat   uneven-aged-forest   unexpected-effect   unfalsifiability   ungulate   ungulate-browsing   united-kingdom   united-nations   united-states   universal-approximation   unknown   unrealistic-expectations   unsupervised-training   upper-treeline   uprooting   urban-areas   urban-forest   urban-habitats   urban-trees   urgent-hpc   url-decay   urocerus-gigas   ursus-arctos   usda   ushahidi   usle   usle-m   usped   utilization   vaccination   vaccinium-arctostaphylos   vaccinium-myrtillus   vaccinium-oxycoccos   vaccinium-spp   vaccinium-uliginosum   vaccinium-vitis-idaea   vaccinum-myrtillus   validation   valsa-melanodiscus   values-at-stake   values-vs-scientific-evidence   vapour-pressure-deficit   variability   variable-selection   variance-partitioning   variation   vascular-plants   vascular-system   vauable   vegetation   vegetation-buffer   vegetation-changes   vegetation-composition   vegetation-condition   vegetation-diversity   vegetation-dynamics   vegetation-types   vegetative-propagation   vehicle-detection   veneer   venice   verification-vs-corroboration   veronica-micrantha   veronica-officinalis   vertebrate   verticillium-dahliae   vgi   viburnum-lantana   viburnum-opalus   viburnum-opulus   viburnum-orientale  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 41

(February 2018)
Keywords: inrmm-list-of-tags   thrinax-radiata   thuja-occidentalis   thuja-plicata   thuja-spp   tibet   tilia-americana   tilia-amurensis   tilia-argentea   tilia-cordata   tilia-dasystyla   tilia-platyphyllos   tilia-spp   tilia-tomentosa   tilio-acerion   tillage   timber-harvesting   timber-quality   timber-uses   timber-value   time-lags   time-series   tipovers   tipping-point   todo-replace-book-abstract-with-chapter-abstract   tolerance   tomicobia-seitneri   tomicus-piniperda   tomicus-spp   tool-driven   toona-ciliata   top-down   topographic-position-index   topographic-wetness-index   topography   topology   topsoil-grain-size   torcello   tornado   torreya-californica   torreya-spp   torreya-taxifolia   tortrix-viridana   totum-pro-parte-bias   tourism   toxicity   trade-offs   trade-regulations   traditional-remedy   training-course   trait-based-approach   transboundary-effects   transcendental-functions   transdiciplinary-scientific-communication   transdisciplinary-research   transect   transparency   transport   transport-system   transportation-impacts   treculia-africana   tree-age   tree-breeding   tree-cancer   tree-defoliation   tree-density   tree-diseases   tree-diversity   tree-ecology   tree-fall   tree-fruits   tree-height   tree-limit   tree-line   tree-mortality   tree-rings   tree-sap   tree-seeds   tree-species   tree-virus   treefall   trichilogaster-acaciaelongifoliae   trichiocampus-viminalis   trinidad-island   tropical-areas   tropical-climate   tropical-forest   tropical-forests   tropical-mountain-forest   tropical-storms   tropics   trunk-sucker   tsuga-canadensis   tsuga-chinensis   tsuga-heterophylla   tsuga-mertensiana   tsuga-spp   tundra   turing-completeness   turkey  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Spatial-temporal variation of near-surface temperature lapse rates over the Tianshan Mountains, central Asia

Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 121, No. 23. (16 December 2016), pp. 14006-14017,


Adequate estimates of near‐surface temperature lapse rate (γlocal) are needed to represent air temperature in remote mountain regions with sparse instrumental records such as the mountains of central Asia. To identify the spatial and temporal variations of γlocal in the Tianshan Mountains, long‐term (1961–2011) daily maximum, mean, and minimum temperature (Tmax, Tmean, and Tmin) data from 17 weather stations and 1 year of temperature logger data were analyzed considering three subregions: northern slopes, Kaidu Basin, and southern slopes. Simple linear regression was ...


AMORE: A MORE flexible neural network package

In The Comprehensive R Archive Network (2014)


This package was born to release the TAO robust neural network algorithm to the R users. It has grown and I think it can be of interest for the users wanting to implement their own training algorithms as well as for those others whose needs lye only in the "user space". ...


Land use strategies to mitigate climate change in carbon dense temperate forests

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 14. (03 April 2018), pp. 3663-3668,


[Significance] Regional quantification of feasibility and effectiveness of forest strategies to mitigate climate change should integrate observations and mechanistic ecosystem process models with future climate, CO2, disturbances from fire, and management. Here, we demonstrate this approach in a high biomass region, and found that reforestation, afforestation, lengthened harvest cycles on private lands, and restricting harvest on public lands increased net ecosystem carbon balance by 56% by 2100, with the latter two actions contributing the most. Forest sector emissions tracked with our life ...


A sensible climate solution for the boreal forest

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 8, No. 1. (2 January 2018), pp. 11-12,


Climate change could increase fire risk across most of the managed boreal forest. Decreasing this risk by increasing the proportion of broad-leaved tree species is an overlooked mitigation–adaption strategy with multiple benefits. ...


An Introduction to R - Notes on R: a programming environment for data analysis and graphics



[Excerpt: The R environment] R is an integrated suite of software facilities for data manipulation, calculation and graphical display. Among other things it has [::] an effective data handling and storage facility, [::] a suite of operators for calculations on arrays, in particular matrices, [::] a large, coherent, integrated collection of intermediate tools for data analysis, [::] graphical facilities for data analysis and display either directly at the computer or on hardcopy, and [::] a well developed, simple and effective programming language (called ‘S’) which includes conditionals, ...


Caliver: an R package for CALIbration and VERification of forest fire gridded model outputs

PLOS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 1. (2 January 2018), e0189419,


The name caliver stands for CALIbration and VERification of forest fire gridded model outputs. This is a package developed for the R programming language and available under an APACHE-2 license from a public repository. In this paper we describe the functionalities of the package and give examples using publicly available datasets. Fire danger model outputs are taken from the modeling components of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) and observed burned areas from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED). Complete ...


Attribution of recent temperature behaviour reassessed by a neural-network method

Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, No. 1. (15 December 2017),


Attribution studies on recent global warming by Global Climate Model (GCM) ensembles converge in showing the fundamental role of anthropogenic forcings as primary drivers of temperature in the last half century. However, despite their differences, all these models pertain to the same dynamical approach and come from a common ancestor, so that their very similar results in attribution studies are not surprising and cannot be considered as a clear proof of robustness of the results themselves. Thus, here we adopt a ...


Cross-validation strategies for data with temporal, spatial, hierarchical, or phylogenetic structure

Ecography, Vol. 40, No. 8. (1 August 2017), pp. 913-929,


Ecological data often show temporal, spatial, hierarchical (random effects), or phylogenetic structure. Modern statistical approaches are increasingly accounting for such dependencies. However, when performing cross-validation, these structures are regularly ignored, resulting in serious underestimation of predictive error. One cause for the poor performance of uncorrected (random) cross-validation, noted often by modellers, are dependence structures in the data that persist as dependence structures in model residuals, violating the assumption of independence. Even more concerning, because often overlooked, is that structured data also ...


Fire forbids fifty-fifty forest

PLOS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 1. (19 January 2018), e0191027,


Recent studies have interpreted patterns of remotely sensed tree cover as evidence that forest with intermediate tree cover might be unstable in the tropics, as it will tip into either a closed forest or a more open savanna state. Here we show that across all continents the frequency of wildfires rises sharply as tree cover falls below ~40%. Using a simple empirical model, we hypothesize that the steepness of this pattern causes intermediate tree cover (30‒60%) to be unstable for a ...

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