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Selection: library 6369 articles 

 

Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL) database

  

Abstract

[Excerpt] If you use the GRWL Database in your work, please cite: Allen and Pavelsky (2018) Global Extent of Rivers and Streams. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aat0636 [\n] Check out the GRWL Database website: http://gaia.geosci.unc.edu/GRWL/ [\n] This long-term repository contains three files: [::1] Simplified GRWL Vector Product: GRWL_summaryStats_V01.01.zip [::2] GRWL Mask (raster): GRWL_mask_V01.01.zip [::3] GRWL Vector Product: GRWL_vector_V01.01.zip [...] ...

 

Global extent of rivers and streams

  
Science (28 June 2018), eaat0636, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aat0636

Abstract

[Expanding the role of rivers] The surfaces of rivers and streams are interfaces for a host of chemical exchanges with the atmosphere and biosphere. For instance, carbon dioxide outgassing from rivers is estimated to be equivalent to one-fifth of combined emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production. Allen and Pavelsky used satellite imagery to estimate the surface area of rivers and streams (see the Perspective by Palmer and Ruhi). The stunning map that they generated results in an upward revision, by ...

 

Development of a global hybrid forest mask through the synergy of remote sensing, crowdsourcing and FAO statistics

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 162 (June 2015), pp. 208-220, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2015.02.011

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Forest extent from 8 products was validated using crowdsourced data. [::] The first global 1 km forest cover map (in contrast with tree cover) was elaborated. [::] A hybrid forest map calibrated with FAO FRA data is produced. [::] Both crowdsourced data and result hybrid maps are made publicly available. [Abstract] A number of global and regional maps of forest extent are available, but when compared spatially, there are large areas of disagreement. Moreover, there is currently no global forest map that is consistent with ...

 

Estimating global agricultural effects of geoengineering using volcanic eruptions

  

Abstract

Solar radiation management is increasingly considered to be an option for managing global temperatures1,2, yet the economic effects of ameliorating climatic changes by scattering sunlight back to space remain largely unknown3. Although solar radiation management may increase crop yields by reducing heat stress4, the effects of concomitant changes in available sunlight have never been empirically estimated. Here we use the volcanic eruptions that inspired modern solar radiation management proposals as natural experiments to provide the first estimates, to our knowledge, of ...

 

A plan to shoot tiny droplets into the sky would cool the planet—but wouldn’t help crops

  
Science (08 August 2018), https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aav0467

Abstract

Cooling Earth by injecting tiny particles high into the atmosphere, just as Mount Pinatubo’s 1991 eruption did, probably wouldn’t help crop yields in a warmer world. ...

 

The extent of forest in dryland biomes

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6338. (12 May 2017), pp. 635-638, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aam6527

Abstract

[Mapping the world's dry forests] The extent of forest area in dryland habitats, which occupy more than 40% of Earth's land surface, is uncertain compared with that in other biomes. Bastin et al. provide a global estimate of forest extent in drylands, calculated from high-resolution satellite images covering more than 200,000 plots. Forests in drylands are much more extensive than previously reported and cover a total area similar to that of tropical rainforests or boreal forests. This increases estimates of global forest ...

 

Uncertainties in tree cover maps of Sub-Saharan Africa and their implications for measuring progress towards CBD Aichi Targets

  
Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation, Vol. 4, No. 2. (June 2018), pp. 94-112, https://doi.org/10.1002/rse2.52

Abstract

The growing access to Earth Observations and processing capabilities have stimulated the production of global and regional products that are commonly used to assess tree‐covered habitats and their changes. The popularity of these products has led to their use for defining baselines and to assess progress in conserving natural habitats, in particular, in the context of the conservation targets to 2020 set by the UN Convention on Biological Diversity. In this paper, we reviewed three tree cover products commonly used over ...

 

Comment on “The extent of forest in dryland biomes”

  
Science, Vol. 358, No. 6362. (26 October 2017), eaao0166, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aao0166

Abstract

Bastin et al. (Reports, 12 May 2017, p. 635) claim to have discovered 467 million hectares of new dryland forest. We would argue that these additional areas are not completely “new” and that some have been reported before. A second shortcoming is that not all sources of uncertainty are considered; the uncertainty could be much higher than the reported value of 3.5%. ...

 

Response to Comment on “The extent of forest in dryland biomes”

  
Science, Vol. 358, No. 6362. (26 October 2017), eaao2070, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aao2070

Abstract

Schepaschenko et al. question our findings, claiming that we did not refer to all existing maps and that we did not account for all sources of uncertainty. In our response, we detail our selection criteria for reference maps, which clarify why the work of Schepaschenko et al. was not used, and we explain why our uncertainty assessment is complete and how it was misunderstood by Schepaschenko et al. ...

 

Big data of tree species distributions: how big and how good?

  
Forest Ecosystems, Vol. 4, No. 1. (2018), 30, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40663-017-0120-0

Abstract

Trees play crucial roles in the biosphere and societies worldwide, with a total of 60,065 tree species currently identified. Increasingly, a large amount of data on tree species occurrences is being generated worldwide: from inventories to pressed plants. While many of these data are currently available in big databases, several challenges hamper their use, notably geolocation problems and taxonomic uncertainty. Further, we lack a complete picture of the data coverage and quality assessment for open/public databases of tree occurrences. ...

 

Global, 30-m resolution continuous fields of tree cover: Landsat-based rescaling of MODIS vegetation continuous fields with lidar-based estimates of error

  
International Journal of Digital Earth, Vol. 6, No. 5. (21 September 2013), pp. 427-448, https://doi.org/10.1080/17538947.2013.786146

Abstract

We developed a global, 30-m resolution dataset of percent tree cover by rescaling the 250-m MOderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) Tree Cover layer using circa- 2000 and 2005 Landsat images, incorporating the MODIS Cropland Layer to improve accuracy in agricultural areas. Resulting Landsat-based estimates maintained consistency with the MODIS VCF in both epochs (RMSE = 8.6% in 2000 and 11.9% in 2005), but showed improved accuracy in agricultural areas and increased discrimination of small forest patches. Against lidar ...

 

Risk of increased food insecurity under stringent global climate change mitigation policy

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 8, No. 8. (30 July 2018), pp. 699-703, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0230-x

Abstract

Food insecurity can be directly exacerbated by climate change due to crop-production-related impacts of warmer and drier conditions that are expected in important agricultural regions1,2,3. However, efforts to mitigate climate change through comprehensive, economy-wide GHG emissions reductions may also negatively affect food security, due to indirect impacts on prices and supplies of key agricultural commodities4,5,6. Here we conduct a multiple model assessment on the combined effects of climate change and climate mitigation efforts on agricultural commodity prices, dietary energy availability and ...

 

Tractable near-optimal policies for crawling

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 32. (07 August 2018), pp. 8099-8103, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1801519115

Abstract

[Significance] We present a tractable algorithm that provides a near-optimal solution to the crawling problem, a fundamental challenge at the heart of web search: Given a large quantity of distributed and dynamic web content, what pages do we choose to update a local cache with the goal of serving up-to-date pages to client requests? Solving this optimization requires identifying the best set of pages to refresh given popularity rates and change rates—an intractable problem in the general case. To overcome this intractability, ...

 

Parametric transitions between bare and vegetated states in water-driven patterns

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 32. (07 August 2018), pp. 8125-8130, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1721765115

Abstract

[Significance] Since the appearance of land plants in Devonian time, vegetation has played a key role in the coevolution of life and landscapes as a result of mutual orchestrated processes between vegetation characteristics, environmental disturbances, and soil allometry. We mathematically frame the interactions between these three processes into a single parameter that discriminates between vegetated and bare states. In agreement with theories linking ecosystem development to hydrosphere and lithosphere connectivity, this theory suggests that the vegetation biodiversity of river sediment deposits occurs ...

 

Trajectories of the Earth system in the Anthropocene

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (06 August 2018), 201810141, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1810141115

Abstract

We explore the risk that self-reinforcing feedbacks could push the Earth System toward a planetary threshold that, if crossed, could prevent stabilization of the climate at intermediate temperature rises and cause continued warming on a “Hothouse Earth” pathway even as human emissions are reduced. Crossing the threshold would lead to a much higher global average temperature than any interglacial in the past 1.2 million years and to sea levels significantly higher than at any time in the Holocene. We examine the ...

 

Using volunteered geographic information (VGI) in design-based statistical inference for area estimation and accuracy assessment of land cover

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 212 (June 2018), pp. 47-59, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2018.04.014

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Use of VGI in design-based inference requires adhering to rigorous protocols. [::] Collecting VGI using a probability sample is best option for design-based inference. [::] Certainty stratum approach incorporates VGI to reduce standard errors. [::] Incorporating VGI in a model-assisted estimator is beneficial in limited situations. [::] VGI from non-probability sample requires difficult to verify assumptions. [Abstract] Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) offers a potentially inexpensive source of reference data for estimating area and assessing map accuracy in the context of remote-sensing based land-cover monitoring. The quality ...

 

Wildfire science is at a loss for comprehensive data

  
Nature, Vol. 560, No. 7716. (31 July 2018), pp. 7-7, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-05840-4

Abstract

An international monitoring initiative is crucial for understanding wildfires and reducing their damage, says David Bowman. [Excerpt] [...] we can say little for certain about trends in wildfires worldwide. Data are too scant to say conclusively whether fires are becoming more destructive. If humans are to live sustainably on flammable landscapes, we need a global system for collecting data on fires to gain a coherent picture and assess strategies. [...] Yet the strong links between humans and flammable landscapes make fire a ...

 

Pinning extreme weather on climate change is now routine and reliable science

  
Nature, Vol. 560, No. 7716. (30 July 2018), pp. 5-5, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-05839-x

Abstract

Research has finally generated the tools to attribute heatwaves and downpours to global warming. [Excerpt] [...] For years, the standard response was that climate change makes such events more likely, but it is hard to pin down the causes of a particular event. That is now changing. [...] extreme-event attribution — the science of calculating how global warming has changed the likelihood and magnitude of extreme heat, cold, drought, rain or flooding — [...] has advanced to the point at which public ...

 

Resist calls for replicability in the humanities

  
Nature, Vol. 560, No. 7716. (1 August 2018), pp. 29-29, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-05845-z

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Replication is a mark of quality only in the construction of truth for indifferent kinds. Extracting meaning from interactive kinds requires evaluation and assessment according to different quality criteria — namely, those that are based on cultural relationships and not statistical realities. [...] ...

 

Impacts of inter-annual wind and solar variations on the European power system

  

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] The impact of weather patterns on power system increases with decarbonization [::] Europe's CO2 output and generation cost variability could increase 5-fold by 2030 [::] Several metrics can be reasonably approximated from the level VRE penetration [::] The most representative single years for renewable generation are 1989 and 2012 [Context & Scale] Wind and solar power have been driving the decarbonization of Europe's electricity over the last decade. Increasing our reliance on weather-dependent resources makes it imperative that planning of electricity systems becomes cognizant of ...

 

US particulate matter air quality improves except in wildfire-prone areas

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 31. (31 July 2018), pp. 7901-7906, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1804353115

Abstract

[Significance] Wildfires are a major source of fine particulate matter (diameter <2.5 µm; PM2.5), which is a health hazard. Since the mid-1980s, the total US area burned by wildfires has been increasing, with fires in the Northwest United States accounting for ∼50–60% of that increase. In the Northwest United States, we find a positive trend in the 98th quantile of PM2.5 in contrast to other areas of the country where PM2.5 is decreasing. This positive trend in PM2.5 is closely associated with ...

 

Where there is fire, there is smoke

  
Science, Vol. 361, No. 6400. (27 July 2018), pp. 341-341, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau6672

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] High-intensity wildfires (those exceeding 200,000 kW/m2) in very high biomass forests may consume 9 to 14% of the biomass [...]. This is substantially less than half of the 140 to 450 tons of biomass per hectare consumed when logging slash (i.e., dense waste wood) is burned after logging operations in these same kinds of forest [...]. Moreover, such logging burns consume at least 10 times as much biomass as hazard reduction burns designed to reduce wildfire risk [...] ...

 

Preprints could promote confusion and distortion

  
Nature, Vol. 559, No. 7715. (24 July 2018), pp. 445-445, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-05789-4

Abstract

The scientific community must take measures to keep preprints from distorting the public’s understanding of science, says Tom Sheldon. [Excerpt] [...] As soon as research is in the public domain, there is nothing to stop a journalist writing about it, and rushing to be the first to do so. Imagine early findings that seem to show that climate change is natural or that a common vaccine is unsafe. Preprints on subjects such as those could, if they become a story that goes ...

 

A semi-automated approach for the generation of a new land use and land cover product for Germany based on Landsat time-series and Lucas in-situ data

  
Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 8, No. 3. (02 December 2016), pp. 244-253, https://doi.org/10.1080/2150704x.2016.1249299

Abstract

Information on land cover and land use at high spatial resolutions is essential for advancing earth system science as well as for environmental monitoring to support decision-making and reporting processes. In view of this, we present the first version of the DFD Land Use and Land Cover Product for Germany, DFD-LULC_DE, for the year 2014, generated from 702 Landsat-7 and Landat-8 scenes at 30 m resolution. The results were derived based on a fully automated preprocessing chain that integrates data acquisition, ...

 

Wildfire smoke exposure: a guide for the nurse practitioner

  
The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, Vol. 8, No. 2. (February 2012), pp. 98-106, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2011.07.001

Abstract

Wildfires produce enormous quantities of finely sized air pollution. Exposure to wildfire smoke is associated with increased incidence of cardio-respiratory health effects, especially in children, persons with chronic disease, and the elderly. This article discusses exposure to particle air pollution, toxicological mechanisms, timing of clinical presentations, and treatment guidelines for use by the nurse practitioner during smoke events. ...

 

Population exposure to fine particles and estimated excess mortality in Finland from an East European wildfire episode

  
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, Vol. 19, No. 4. (4 June 2008), pp. 414-422, https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2008.31

Abstract

Long-range transported particulate matter (PM) air pollution episodes associated with wildfires in the Eastern Europe are relatively common in Southern and Southeastern Finland. In severe cases such as in August–September 2002, the reduced visibility and smell of the smoke, and symptoms such as irritation of eyes and airways experienced by the population raise the issue into the headlines. Because PM air pollution, in general, has been identified as a major health risk, and the exposures are of repeating nature, the issue ...

 

Species-specific, pan-European diameter increment models based on data of 2.3 million trees

  
Forest Ecosystems, Vol. 5, No. 1. (3 April 2018), https://doi.org/10.1186/s40663-018-0133-3

Abstract

[Background] Over the last decades, many forest simulators have been developed for the forests of individual European countries. The underlying growth models are usually based on national datasets of varying size, obtained from National Forest Inventories or from long-term research plots. Many of these models include country- and location-specific predictors, such as site quality indices that may aggregate climate, soil properties and topography effects. Consequently, it is not sensible to compare such models among countries, and it is often impossible to apply ...

 

Data sharing and the future of science

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 9, No. 1. (19 July 2018), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05227-z

Abstract

Who benefits from sharing data? The scientists of future do, as data sharing today enables new science tomorrow. Far from being mere rehashes of old datasets, evidence shows that studies based on analyses of previously published data can achieve just as much impact as original projects. [Excerpt] [...] data sharing [...] enables individual researchers to punch above their financial weight by making large, or expensive-to-collect, datasets available to all. In this way, data sharing opens hence unforeseen avenues of research. [...] Sharing ...

 

A procedure to obtain a refined European land use/cover map

  
Journal of Land Use Science, Vol. 8, No. 3. (September 2013), pp. 255-283, https://doi.org/10.1080/1747423x.2012.667450

Abstract

Available land use/cover maps differ in their spatial extent and in their thematic, spatial, and temporal resolutions. Due to the costs of producing such maps, there is usually a trade-off between spatial extent and resolution. The only European-wide, consistent, and multi-temporal land use/cover dataset available is the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) map. Despite the value and usefulness of CLC, its minimum mapping unit (MMU) of 25 hectares considerably limits its applications at large scales of analysis. Our objective was to improve ...

 

Many roads to convergence

  
Science, Vol. 361, No. 6398. (13 July 2018), pp. 125-126, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau2409

Abstract

Many plants form specialized symbiotic root structures, called nodules, that harbor beneficial associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the genera Rhizobium or Frankia (see the photo). How this nitrogen-fixing root nodule (NFN) symbiosis arose repeatedly during plant evolution is an age-old mystery: It shows signatures of convergence (the repeated emergence of similarity during evolution) yet builds on similar gene sets in phylogenetically distant plants. On page 144 of this issue, Griesmann et al. (1) sequenced the genomes of 10 plant species to ...

 

When persistence doesn't pay

  
Science, Vol. 361, No. 6398. (13 July 2018), pp. 124-125, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau3144

Abstract

People routinely make bad decisions. Far from being random, however, these bad decisions are often predictable, occurring reliably in specific contexts (1–3). One set of such suboptimal decisions are cognitive biases, wherein individuals make decisions that predictably violate rationality or their own best interests without a logical reason for doing so (4). One such bias is the sunk cost bias, in which individuals invest more time or resources in an outcome than it is worth given the potential gain, presumably because ...

 

Assessing the influence of roads on fire ignition: does land cover matter?

  
Fire, Vol. 1, No. 2. (09 July 2018), 24, https://doi.org/10.3390/fire1020024

Abstract

In human-affected fire environments, assessing the influence of human activities on the spatial distribution of wildfire ignitions is of paramount importance for fire management planning. Previous studies have shown that roads have significant effects on fire ignition. However, since different land cover classes are subject to different levels of ignition risk, roads in different land cover classes may differently affect fire ignition. The aim of this paper is thus to assess the influence of roads on fire ignition in selected land ...

 

Kernel-based measures of association

  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics, Vol. 10, No. 2. (March 2018), e1422, https://doi.org/10.1002/wics.1422

Abstract

Measures of association have been widely used for describing statistical relationships between two sets of variables. Traditionally, such association measures focus on specialized settings. Based on an in‐depth summary of existing common measures, we present a general framework for association measures that unifies existing methods and novel extensions based on kernels, including practical solutions to computational challenges. Specifically, we introduce association screening and variable selection via maximizing kernel‐based association measures. We also develop a backward dropping procedure for feature selection when ...

 

Vegetation Fire and Smoke Pollution Warning and Advisory System (VFSP-WAS): concept note and expert recommendations

  
Vol. 235 (2018)

Abstract

This concept note contains the expert recommendations resulting from discussions at the international workshop on Forecasting Emissions from Vegetation Fires and their Impacts on Human Health and Security in South-East Asia, which was hosted by the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Jakarta, from 29 August to 1 September 2016. The workshop was organized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Interdisciplinary Biomass Burning Initiative (IBBI) in collaboration with the United Nations Office for Disaster Reduction/International Wildfire Preparedness ...

 

Medium-range, monthly, and seasonal prediction for Europe and the use of forecast information

  
Journal of Climate, Vol. 19, No. 23. (December 2006), pp. 6025-6046, https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli3944.1

Abstract

Operational probabilistic (ensemble) forecasts made at ECMWF during the European summer heat wave of 2003 indicate significant skill on medium (3–10 day) and monthly (10–30 day) time scales. A more general “unified” analysis of many medium-range, monthly, and seasonal forecasts confirms a high degree of probabilistic forecast skill for European temperatures over the first month. The unified analysis also identifies seasonal predictability for Europe, which is not yet realized in seasonal forecasts. Interestingly, the initial atmospheric state appears to be important ...

 

No place for bullies in science

  
Nature, Vol. 559, No. 7713. (10 July 2018), pp. 151-151, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-05683-z

Abstract

High-profile allegations of bullying at a German research institute highlight the need for better systems to protect young scientists. [Excerpt] [...] In Nature’s opinion, young researchers there have been let down over the years. These researchers say the institute and its parent body, the Max Planck Society — also one of the world’s leading research organizations — failed to control the situation in a timely manner. It is hard to disagree. [\n] Most scientific institutions in Germany — including the Max Planck ...

 

Resilience of networks with community structure behaves as if under an external field

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 27. (03 July 2018), pp. 6911-6915, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1801588115

Abstract

[Significance] Much work has focused on phase transitions in complex networks in which the system transitions from a resilient to a failed state. Furthermore, many of these networks have a community structure, whose effects on resilience have not yet been fully understood. Here, we show that the community structure can significantly affect the resilience of the system in that it removes the phase transition present in a single module, and the network remains resilient at this transition. In particular, we show that ...

 

Assessing nature's contributions to people

  
Science, Vol. 359, No. 6373. (18 January 2018), pp. 270-272, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aap8826

Abstract

A major challenge today and into the future is to maintain or enhance beneficial contributions of nature to a good quality of life for all people. This is among the key motivations of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), a joint global effort by governments, academia, and civil society to assess and promote knowledge of Earth's biodiversity and ecosystems and their contribution to human societies in order to inform policy formulation. One of the more recent key ...

 

Negligent and intentional fires in Portugal: spatial distribution characterization

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 624 (May 2018), pp. 424-437, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.013

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Average fire size is much higher for intentional than for negligent fires. [::] Incidence of negligent and intentional fires has different distribution patterns. [::] Higher drivers' influence for intentional fires, burnt area and in the south region. [::] Human's drivers and altitude are the most important for fire ignitions. [::] Negligent (intentional) fires burn more forest and agricultural (human) areas. [Abstract] In the European context, Portugal is the country with the highest number of wildfires and the second with more burnt area. The vast majority of ...

 

Remote sensing techniques to assess active fire characteristics and post-fire effects

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 15, No. 3. (2006), 319, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf05097

Abstract

Space and airborne sensors have been used to map area burned, assess characteristics of active fires, and characterize post-fire ecological effects. Confusion about fire intensity, fire severity, burn severity, and related terms can result in the potential misuse of the inferred information by land managers and remote sensing practitioners who require unambiguous remote sensing products for fire management. The objective of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive review of current and potential remote sensing methods used to assess fire ...

 

A new European settlement map from optical remotely sensed data

  
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Vol. 9, No. 5. (May 2016), pp. 1978-1992, https://doi.org/10.1109/jstars.2015.2485662

Abstract

An application of a general methodology for processing very high-resolution imagery to produce a European Settlement Map (ESM) in support of policy-makers is presented. The process mapped around 10 million km2 of the European continent. The input image data are satellite SPOT-5/6 pan-sharpened multispectral images of 2.5- and 1.5-m spatial resolution, respectively. This is the first time that remote sensing technology demonstrates capability to produce a continental information layer using 2.5-m input images. Moreover, it is the highest resolution continental map ...

 

Inter-sensor comparison of built-up derived from Landsat, Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and SPOT5/SPOT6 over selected cities

  

Abstract

In the last 5 years, several information layers describing human settlements were developed within the Global Human Settlement infrastructure of the Joint Research Centre using Earth Observation data. Each layer was derived from a different satellite (with different various spatial resolutions and radiometric properties) and from images acquired at different time stamps. The next step is to exploit the synergies between the different sensors and possibly integrate the information layers within a single product. To enable those future developments, it is ...

 

Switching on the Big Burn of 2017

  
Fire, Vol. 1, No. 1. (05 June 2018), 17, https://doi.org/10.3390/fire1010017

Abstract

Fuel, aridity, and ignition switches were all on in 2017, making it one of the largest and costliest wildfire years in the United States (U.S.) since national reporting began. Anthropogenic climate change helped flip on some of these switches rapidly in 2017, and kept them on for longer than usual. Anthropogenic changes to the fire environment will increase the likelihood of such record wildfire years in the coming decades. The 2017 wildfires in the U.S. constitute part of a shifting baseline ...

 

High-resolution mapping of global surface water and its long-term changes

  
Nature, Vol. 540, No. 7633. (7 December 2016), pp. 418-422, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature20584

Abstract

The location and persistence of surface water (inland and coastal) is both affected by climate and human activity and affects climate, biological diversity and human wellbeing. Global data sets documenting surface water location and seasonality have been produced from inventories and national descriptions, statistical extrapolation of regional data and satellite imagery, but measuring long-term changes at high resolution remains a challenge. Here, using three million Landsat satellite images, we quantify changes in global surface water over the past 32 years at ...

 

Wildfire–vegetation dynamics affect predictions of climate change impact on bird communities

  
Ecography, Vol. 41, No. 6. (July 2018), pp. 982-995, https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.02990

Abstract

Community‐level climate change indicators have been proposed to appraise the impact of global warming on community composition. However, non‐climate factors may also critically influence species distribution and biological community assembly. The aim of this paper was to study how fire–vegetation dynamics can modify our ability to predict the impact of climate change on bird communities, as described through a widely‐used climate change indicator: the community thermal index (CTI). Potential changes in bird species assemblage were predicted using the spatially‐explicit species assemblage ...

 

Triggers of tree mortality under drought

  
Nature, Vol. 558, No. 7711. (27 June 2018), pp. 531-539, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0240-x

Abstract

Severe droughts have caused widespread tree mortality across many forest biomes with profound effects on the function of ecosystems and carbon balance. Climate change is expected to intensify regional-scale droughts, focusing attention on the physiological basis of drought-induced tree mortality. Recent work has shown that catastrophic failure of the plant hydraulic system is a principal mechanism involved in extensive crown death and tree mortality during drought, but the multi-dimensional response of trees to desiccation is complex. Here we focus on the ...

 

Citations must default to the online publication date

  
Nature, Vol. 558, No. 7711. (27 June 2018), pp. 519-519, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-05387-4

Abstract

[Excerpt] With online delivery increasingly dominating scientific publishing, most long-established journals run papers in both print and online formats — but not necessarily simultaneously. This can affect how researchers are given scientific priority. [...] In our experience, the time lag between the two can be as long as 6 months. This might be crucial for annual research evaluations, for instance, when a paper is published online at the end of one year and in print the year after [...] ...

 

AI could threaten pharmaceutical patents

  
Nature, Vol. 558, No. 7711. (26 June 2018), pp. 519-519, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-05555-6

Abstract

[Excerpt] Artificial intelligence could help to identify more-effective candidate drugs [...] A patent is granted only when a compound’s application can be classified as both ‘new’ and ‘invented’. A highly effective compound thrown up by an AI algorithm could indeed be new. Whether it is ‘invented’, however, is debatable. This is because the inventor might be considered as either the algorithm (so not a person) or its programmer. [...] ...

 

Robust relationship between air quality and infant mortality in Africa

  

Abstract

Poor air quality is thought to be an important mortality risk factor globally, but there is little direct evidence from the developing world on how mortality risk varies with changing exposure to ambient particulate matter. Current global estimates apply exposure–response relationships that have been derived mostly from wealthy, mid-latitude countries to spatial population data, and these estimates remain unvalidated across large portions of the globe. Here we combine household survey-based information on the location and timing of nearly 1 million births ...

 

Compact or spread? A quantitative spatial model of urban areas in Europe since 1990

  
PLOS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 2. (28 February 2018), e0192326, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192326

Abstract

Changes in urban residential density represent an important issue in terms of land consumption, the conservation of ecosystems, air quality and related human health problems, as well as the consequential challenges for urban and regional planning. It is the decline of residential densities, in particular, that has often been used as the very definition of sprawl, describing a phenomenon that has been extensively studied in the United States and in Western Europe. Whilst these studies provide valuable insights into urbanization processes, ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.