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Droughts, floods, and wildfire

In Climate science special report: fourth national climate assessment, volume I (2017), pp. 231-253,


[Excerpt:Key findings] [::1] Recent droughts and associated heat waves have reached record intensity in some regions of the United States; however, by geographical scale and duration, the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s remains the benchmark drought and extreme heat event in the historical record (very high confidence). While by some measures drought has decreased over much of the continental United States in association with long-term increases in precipitation, neither the precipitation increases nor inferred drought decreases have been confidently attributed to ...


Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification

Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 5. (11 October 2007), pp. 1633-1644,


Although now over 100 years old, the classification of climate originally formulated by Wladimir Köppen and modified by his collaborators and successors, is still in widespread use. It is widely used in teaching school and undergraduate courses on climate. It is also still in regular use by researchers across a range of disciplines as a basis for climatic regionalisation of variables and for assessing the output of global climate models. Here we have produced a new global map of climate using ...


Pest categorisation of Bretziella fagacearum

EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2. (February 2018), e05185,


Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health (PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Bretziella fagacearum, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Ceratocystidaceae. The species was moved from the genus Ceratocystis to a new genus Bretziella following phylogenetic analysis of the species and its close relatives. The former species name Ceratocystis fagacearum is used in the Council Directive 2000/29/EC. The pathogen is regulated in Annex IAI as a harmful organism whose introduction into the ...


  1. Ambourn, A.K., Juzwik, J., Moon, R.D., 2005. Seasonal dispersal of the oak wilt fungus by Colopterus truncatus and Carpophilus sayi in Minnesota. Plant Disease 89, 1067–1076.
  2. Appel, D.N., 1995. The oak wilt enigma: perspectives from the Texas epidemic. Annual Review of Phytopathology 33, 103–118.
  3. Appel, D.N., Maggio, R.C., Nelson, E.L., Jeger, M.J., 1989. Measurement of expanding oak wilt centers in live oak. Phytopathology 79, 1318–1322.
  4. Baker, R., Candresse,

Spatially-explicit models of global tree density

Scientific Data, Vol. 3 (16 August 2016), 160069,


Remote sensing and geographic analysis of woody vegetation provide means of evaluating the distribution of natural resources, patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem structure, and socio-economic drivers of resource utilization. While these methods bring geographic datasets with global coverage into our day-to-day analytic spheres, many of the studies that rely on these strategies do not capitalize on the extensive collection of existing field data. We present the methods and maps associated with the first spatially-explicit models of global tree density, which relied ...


Range dynamics of mountain plants decrease with elevation

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 8. (20 February 2018), pp. 1848-1853,


[Significance] Shifts of upper range limits are a key response of mountain biota to climate change. However, assessing whether species profit or suffer from the changing climate requires the simultaneous evaluation of changes in species’ lower and upper range limits, optima, and abundances. Here, we provide an integrated assessment for 183 plant species of the European Alps. We demonstrate that, over recent decades, increases in abundance were more pronounced than range shifts, suggesting an in-filling process which decreases in intensity with increasing ...


Iterative random forests to discover predictive and stable high-order interactions

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 8. (20 February 2018), pp. 1943-1948,


[Significance] We developed a predictive, stable, and interpretable tool: the iterative random forest algorithm (iRF). iRF discovers high-order interactions among biomolecules with the same order of computational cost as random forests. We demonstrate the efficacy of iRF by finding known and promising interactions among biomolecules, of up to fifth and sixth order, in two data examples in transcriptional regulation and alternative splicing. [Abstract] Genomics has revolutionized biology, enabling the interrogation of whole transcriptomes, genome-wide binding sites for proteins, and many other molecular processes. However, ...


Classification and interaction in random forests

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 8. (20 February 2018), pp. 1690-1692,


Suppose you are a physician with a patient whose complaint could arise from multiple diseases. To attain a specific diagnosis, you might ask yourself a series of yes/no questions depending on observed features describing the patient, such as clinical test results and reported symptoms. As some questions rule out certain diagnoses early on, each answer determines which question you ask next. With about a dozen features and extensive medical knowledge, you could create a simple flow chart to connect and order ...


Maxent is not a presence-absence method: a comment on Thibaud et al

Methods in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 5, No. 11. (November 2014), pp. 1192-1197,


[Summary] [::1] Thibaud et al. (Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2014) present a framework for simulating species and evaluating the relative effects of factors affecting the predictions from species distribution models (SDMs). They demonstrate their approach by generating presence–absence data sets for different simulated species and analysing them using four modelling methods: three presence–absence methods and Maxent, which is a presence-background modelling tool. One of their results is striking: that their use of Maxent performs well in estimating occupancy probabilities and even ...


Economic value of ecological information in ecosystem-based natural resource management depends on exploitation history

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 7. (13 February 2018), pp. 1658-1663,


[Significance] Natural resource management is evolving toward a more holistic approach that acknowledges ecological connections among species. To date, there has been no demonstration of where or when this approach provides economic benefits. Here we find only modest economic benefits from having detailed knowledge of ecological linkages between species. However, the costs of incomplete or incorrect knowledge are unevenly distributed across user groups and are greater after historical overfishing. The ecosystem approach to natural resource management might therefore provide the greatest benefit ...


Discounting... on stilts

The University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 74, No. 1. (2007), pp. 119-138


[Excerpt] Jeremy Bentham famously described the concept of natural rights as “nonsense upon stilts.” This Response argues that cost-benefit analysis (CBA)—a contemporary applied version of Bentham’s utilitarianism for public policy analysis—is also nonsensical in that CBA purports to resolve questions, the answers to which have already been subsumed within the framework’s architecture. In particular, CBA subsumes vital questions of intergenerational equity through its use of an exponential discount factor to adjust future costs and benefits to a present value. This discounting procedure has the practical effect of dramatically diminishing the apparent ...


The limits of cost/benefit analysis when disasters loom

Global Policy, Vol. 7 (May 2016), pp. 56-66,


[Abstract] Advances in estimating the costs and benefits of climate change policies are a welcome development, but a full-scale cost/benefit analysis that seeks to reduce complex value trade-offs to a single metric of net benefit maximization hides many important public policy issues, especially for disasters and catastrophes that are large, discontinuous, irreversible and uncertain. States should obtain public input on such policies. These policies involve value trade-offs that can be informed by technocratic estimates of costs, benefits and risk. However, such analyses ...


The science of value: economic expertise and the valuation of human life in US federal regulatory agencies

Social Studies of Science, Vol. 47, No. 4. (21 March 2017), pp. 441-465,


This article explores efforts to apply economic logic to human life. To do so, it looks at federal regulatory agencies, where government planners and policy makers have spent over a century trying to devise a scientifically sound way to measure the economic value of lives lost or saved by public programs. The methods they have drawn on, however, have changed drastically in the past 40 years, shifting from a ‘human capital’ approach based on models of economic productivity and producing relatively low ...


Adapt to more wildfire in western North American forests as climate changes

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 18. (02 May 2017), pp. 4582-4590,


Wildfires across western North America have increased in number and size over the past three decades, and this trend will continue in response to further warming. As a consequence, the wildland–urban interface is projected to experience substantially higher risk of climate-driven fires in the coming decades. Although many plants, animals, and ecosystem services benefit from fire, it is unknown how ecosystems will respond to increased burning and warming. Policy and management have focused primarily on specified resilience approaches aimed at resistance ...


Gradientes de temperaturas en la montaña española - Surface temperature lapse rates on the spanish mountains

In Riscos associados a Fenómenos Meteorológicos e Geofisicos - 10º Simpósio de Meteorologia e Geofisica da APMG - 18º Encontro Luso-Espanhol de Meteorologia (2017)


[Abstract] A realistic estimation of how surface temperatures vary with elevation is important for climatic, hydrological and ecosystem studies. A fixed lapse rate of 6.5ºC/1.000 meters is generally assumed for the whole conditions and locations, but surface temperature lapse rates vary in space and time due to wind, relative humidity or local topography. In this paper we present an approximation lapse rates estimated in the main Spanish mountains using the database from the Spanish Meteorological Council (AEMET) weather stations network. The results ...


A versatile data-intensive computing platform for information retrieval from big geospatial data

Future Generation Computer Systems, Vol. 81 (April 2018), pp. 30-40
edited by Elsevier
Keywords: big-data   cloud-computing   foss   geospatial  


The increasing amount of free and open geospatial data of interest to major societal questions calls for the development of innovative data-intensive computing platforms for the efficient and effective extraction of information from these data. This paper proposes a versatile petabyte-scale platform based on commodity hardware and equipped with open-source software for the operating system, the distributed file system, and the task scheduler for batch processing as well as the containerization of user specific applications. Interactive visualization and processing based on ...


Deep Learning

edited by M. I. T. Press


The Deep Learning textbook is a resource intended to help students and practitioners enter the field of machine learning in general and deep learning in particular. The online version of the book is now complete and will remain available online for free. ...


Inside-outside net: detecting objects in context with skip pooling and recurrent neural networks

In 2016 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2016) (2016), pp. 2874-2883,


It is well known that contextual and multi-scale representations are important for accurate visual recognition. In this paper we present the Inside-Outside Net (ION), an object detector that exploits information both inside and outside the region of interest. Contextual information outside the region of interest is integrated using spatial recurrent neural networks. Inside, we use skip pooling to extract information at multiple scales and levels of abstraction. Through extensive experiments we evaluate the design space and provide readers with an overview of what tricks of the trade are ...


Beyond ∖newcommand with xparse

TUGboat, Vol. 31, No. 1. (2010), pp. 80-83


[Excerpt: Introduction] The LATEX 2ε \newcommand macro is most LATEX users’ first choice for creating macros. As well as the ‘sanity checks’ it carries out, the ability to define macros with an optional argument is very useful. However, to go beyond using a single optional argument, or to create more complex input syntaxes, LATEX 2ε users have to do things ‘by hand’ using \def or load one of the packages which extend \newcommand (for example twoopt (Oberdiek, 2008)). [\n] As part of the ...


Segnet: a deep convolutional encoder-decoder architecture for robust semantic pixel-wise labelling



We propose a novel deep architecture, SegNet, for semantic pixel wise image labelling. SegNet has several attractive properties; (i) it only requires forward evaluation of a fully learnt function to obtain smooth label predictions, (ii) with increasing depth, a larger context is considered for pixel labelling which improves accuracy, and (iii) it is easy to visualise the effect of feature activation(s) in the pixel label space at any depth. SegNet is composed of a stack of encoders followed by a corresponding ...


SegNet: A Deep Convolutional Encoder-Decoder Architecture for Image Segmentation

(10 Oct 2016)


We present a novel and practical deep fully convolutional neural network architecture for semantic pixel-wise segmentation termed SegNet. This core trainable segmentation engine consists of an encoder network, a corresponding decoder network followed by a pixel-wise classification layer. The architecture of the encoder network is topologically identical to the 13 convolutional layers in the VGG16 network. The role of the decoder network is to map the low resolution encoder feature maps to full input resolution feature maps for pixel-wise classification. The novelty of SegNet lies is in the ...


Towards Better Exploiting Convolutional Neural Networks for Remote Sensing Scene Classification

Pattern Recognition, Vol. 61 (4 Feb 2016), pp. 539-556,


We present an analysis of three possible strategies for exploiting the power of existing convolutional neural networks (ConvNets) in different scenarios from the ones they were trained: full training, fine tuning, and using ConvNets as feature extractors. In many applications, especially including remote sensing, it is not feasible to fully design and train a new ConvNet, as this usually requires a considerable amount of labeled data and demands high computational costs. Therefore, it is important to understand how to obtain the best profit from existing ConvNets. We perform ...


Deep learning in remote sensing: a review

IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine, Vol. 5, No. 4. (11 Oct 2017), pp. 8-36,


Standing at the paradigm shift towards data-intensive science, machine learning techniques are becoming increasingly important. In particular, as a major breakthrough in the field, deep learning has proven as an extremely powerful tool in many fields. Shall we embrace deep learning as the key to all? Or, should we resist a 'black-box' solution? There are controversial opinions in the remote sensing community. In this article, we analyze the challenges of using deep learning for remote sensing data analysis, review the recent advances, and provide resources to make deep ...


Segment-before-Detect: Vehicle Detection and Classification through Semantic Segmentation of Aerial Images

Remote Sensing, Vol. 9, No. 4. (13 April 2017), 368,


Like computer vision before, remote sensing has been radically changed by the introduction of deep learning and, more notably, Convolution Neural Networks. Land cover classification, object detection and scene understanding in aerial images rely more and more on deep networks to achieve new state-of-the-art results. Recent architectures such as Fully Convolutional Networks can even produce pixel level annotations for semantic mapping. In this work, we present a deep-learning based segment-before-detect method for segmentation and subsequent detection and classification of several varieties ...


Speed/accuracy trade-offs for modern convolutional object detectors

In 2017 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2017) (2017), pp. 7310-7319,


The goal of this paper is to serve as a guide for selecting a detection architecture that achieves the right speed/memory/accuracy balance for a given application and platform. To this end, we investigate various ways to trade accuracy for speed and memory usage in modern convolutional object detection systems. A number of successful systems have been proposed in recent years, but apples-to-apples comparisons are difficult due to different base feature extractors (e.g., VGG, Residual Networks), different default image resolutions, as well as different hardware and software platforms. We ...


Software engineering for computational science: past, present, future

Computing in Science & Engineering (2018), pp. 1-1,


While the importance of in silico experiments for the scientific discovery process increases, state-of-the-art software engineering practices are rarely adopted in computational science. To understand the underlying causes for this situation and to identify ways for improving the current situation, we conduct a literature survey on software engineering practices in computational science. As a result of our survey, we identified 13 recurring key characteristics of scientific software development that can be divided into three groups: characteristics that results (1) from the ...


Humidity determines snowpack ablation under a warming climate

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 6. (06 January 2018), pp. 1215-1220,


[Significance] Changes in the amount and timing of snowmelt have large effects on water for society and ecosystems. Using long-term records from across the western United States, we demonstrate that atmospheric humidity is a major control on how seasonal snow responds to warming temperatures. Specifically, we observe an increase in the frequency and magnitude of episodic winter melt events under higher humidity that may alter the timing of water availability. In lower-humidity regions, however, warming is associated with increased sublimation and/or evaporation ...


Global models underestimate large decadal declining and rising water storage trends relative to GRACE satellite data

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (22 January 2018), 201704665,


[Significance] We increasingly rely on global models to project impacts of humans and climate on water resources. How reliable are these models? While past model intercomparison projects focused on water fluxes, we provide here the first comprehensive comparison of land total water storage trends from seven global models to trends from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, which have been likened to giant weighing scales in the sky. The models underestimate the large decadal (2002–2014) trends in water storage relative to ...


The interaction of fire, fuels, and climate across Rocky Mountain forests

BioScience, Vol. 54, No. 7. (2004), pp. 661-676,[0661:tioffa];2


Understanding the relative influence of fuels and climate on wildfires across the Rocky Mountains is necessary to predict how fires may respond to a changing climate and to define effective fuel management approaches to controlling wildfire in this increasingly populated region. The idea that decades of fire suppression have promoted unnatural fuel accumulation and subsequent unprecedentedly large, severe wildfires across western forests has been developed primarily from studies of dry ponderosa pine forests. However, this model is being applied uncritically across ...


Fire-induced deforestation in drought-prone Mediterranean forests: drivers and unknowns from leaves to communities

Ecological Monographs (22 January 2018),


Over the past 15 years, 3 million hectares of forests have been converted into shrublands or grasslands in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union. Fire and drought are the main drivers underlying this deforestation. Here we present a conceptual framework for the process of fire-induced deforestation based on the interactive effects of fire and drought across three hierarchical scales: resistance in individuals, resilience in populations, and transitions to a new state. At the individual plant level, we review the traits ...


On the projection of future fire danger conditions with various instantaneous/mean-daily data sources

Climatic Change, Vol. 118, No. 3-4. (2013), pp. 827-840,


Fire danger indices are descriptors of fire potential in a large area, and combine a few variables that affect the initiation, spread and control of forest fires. The Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) is one of the most widely used fire danger indices in the world, and it is built upon instantaneous values of temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity at noon, together with 24 hourly accumulated precipitation. However, the scarcity of appropriate data has motivated the use of daily mean ...


In praise of slow

Science, Vol. 359, No. 6375. (02 February 2018), pp. 602-602,


[Excerpt] [...] After a relatively relaxed Ph.D. and postdoc, I had been thrilled when I landed a tenured job. But as I worked to establish myself as a group leader, I began to feel intense pressure to be more competitive and publish more. Recently, as I wondered why I felt so discontented at my job, I realized that I could apply some lessons from running to my research. [...] [::] Lesson one: In the right race, your weakness can become your strength. ...


Biodiversity and ecosystem services in forest ecosystems: a research agenda for applied forest ecology

Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 54, No. 1. (1 February 2017), pp. 12-27,


Given the substantial contributions of forest biodiversity and ecosystem services to society, forest sciences have a large potential to contribute to the integrity and sustainability of our future. This is especially true when the roles of biodiversity for sustaining ecosystem services are considered. [\n] The rapid expansion of sustainable forest management (SFM) has resulted in the adoption of various forest management frameworks intended to safeguard biodiversity. Concurrently, the importance of forest ecosystem services has been increasingly recognized. Although some initiatives aimed ...



In Present and future probability of meteorological and hydrological hazards in Europe (2016), pp. 112-118


[Excerpt: Introduction] Uncontrolled forest fires impact both natural and built-up environments as well as humans. The occurrence of a forest fire requires the same basic elements as any fire: heat, oxygen and fuel. Preceding and prevailing weather conditions are crucial for setting conditions susceptible to fire in a forest. Drought, high temperatures and pronounced evaporation dry off organic material in forests, i.e. the fuel. Strong wind during/after ignition substantially intensifies spreading of the fire and raises the likelihood of the surface ...


Temperature lapse rate in complex mountain terrain on the southern slope of the central Himalayas

Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 113, No. 3-4. (2013), pp. 671-682,


This study presents the first results of monthly, seasonal and annual characteristics of temperature lapse rate on the southern slope of the central Himalayas, based on 20 years record of surface air temperature at 56 stations in Nepal. These stations are located at a range of elevations between 72 and 3,920 m above sea level. It is proven that the lapse rate can be calculated with a linear regression model. The annual cycle of temperature lapse rate exhibits a bi-modal pattern: ...


cffdrs: an R package for the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System

Ecological Processes, Vol. 6, No. 1. (31 January 2017), 5,


[Introduction] The Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is a globally known wildland fire risk assessment system, and two major components, the fire weather index system and the fire behavior prediction system, have been extensively used both nationally and internationally to aid operational wildland fire decision making. [Methods] In this paper, we present an overview of an R package cffdrs, which is developed to calculate components of the CFFDRS, and highlight some of its functionality. In particular, we demonstrate how these functions could ...


Forest fire danger extremes in Europe under climate change: variability and uncertainty

Keywords: adaptation   array-of-factors   biodiversity   biodiversity-impacts   burnt-area   climate-change   climate-extremes   communicating-uncertainty   data-transformation-modelling   data-uncertainty   downscaling   droughts   dynamic-system   ecosystem-resilience   emergent-property   euro-cordex   europe   extreme-events   extreme-weather   fire-damage   fire-danger-rating   fire-management   fire-weather-index   forest-fires   forest-management   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-scientific-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   human-behaviour   humidity   ipcc-scenarios   mastrave-modelling-library   mitigation   modelling-uncertainty   no-analog-pattern   peseta-series   precipitation   rcp85   resilience   resilience-vs-resistance   review   robust-modelling   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   scientific-communication   semantic-array-programming   spatial-pattern   species-richness   species-specific-effects   temperature   vegetation-changes   wildfires   wind  


Forests cover over a third of the total land area of Europe. In recent years, large forest fires have repeatedly affected Europe, in particular the Mediterranean countries. Fire danger is influenced by weather in the short term, and by climate when considering longer time intervals. In this work, the emphasis is on the direct influence on fire danger of weather and climate. [\n] For climate analysis at the continental scale, a daily high-emission scenario (RCP 8.5) was considered up to the end ...


  1. de Rigo, D., Bosco, C., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Houston Durrant, T., Barredo, J. I., Strona, G., Caudullo, G., Di Leo, M., Boca, R., 2016. Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services, disturbances and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.), European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. e015b50+. .
  2. Alberdi Asensio, I., Baycheva-Merger, T., Bouvet, A., Bozzano,

Climate impacts from a removal of anthropogenic aerosol emissions

Geophys. Res. Lett. (24 January 2018), 2017GL076079,


Limiting global warming to 1.5 or 2.0°C requires strong mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Concurrently, emissions of anthropogenic aerosols will decline, due to coemission with GHG, and measures to improve air quality. However, the combined climate effect of GHG and aerosol emissions over the industrial era is poorly constrained. Here we show the climate impacts from removing present-day anthropogenic aerosol emissions and compare them to the impacts from moderate GHG-dominated global warming. Removing aerosols induces a global mean surface ...


Redefine statistical significance

Nature Human Behaviour, Vol. 2, No. 1. (1 September 2017), pp. 6-10,


We propose to change the default P-value threshold for statistical significance for claims of new discoveries from 0.05 to 0.005 ...


Pest categorisation of the Gonipterus scutellatus species complex

EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1. (January 2018), e05107,


The Panel on Plant health performed a pest categorisation of the Australian Eucalyptus snout-beetle Gonipterus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), for the EU. G. scutellatus should be referred as the G. scutellatus species complex because it includes several cryptic species. A complete nomenclature of the species present in the EU is still pending. It is a quarantine pest listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones are in place in Greece and Portugal (Azores). In the EU, it has been found ...


  1. Agarwal, M.I., Ren, Y., Newman, J., Learmonth, S., 2015. Ethyl formate: a potential disinfestation treatment for eucalyptus weevil (Gonipterus platensis) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apples. Journal of Economic Entomology 108, 2566–2571. .
  2. Álvarez Taboada, M.F., Lorenzo Cimadevila, H., Rodriguez Pérez, J.R., Pocos Martín, J., 2005. Workflow to improve the forest management of Eucalyptus globulus stands affected by Gonipterus scutellatus in Galicia (Spain) using remote sensing and GIS. 11 th SPIE International Symposium

A global map of travel time to cities to assess inequalities in accessibility in 2015

Nature, Vol. 553, No. 7688. (10 January 2018), pp. 333-336,


The economic and man-made resources that sustain human wellbeing are not distributed evenly across the world, but are instead heavily concentrated in cities. Poor access to opportunities and services offered by urban centres (a function of distance, transport infrastructure, and the spatial distribution of cities) is a major barrier to improved livelihoods and overall development. Advancing accessibility worldwide underpins the equity agenda of ‘leaving no one behind’ established by the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. This has renewed international ...


What is science's crisis really about?

Futures, Vol. 91 (August 2017), pp. 5-11,


[Highlights] [::] Science’s crisis is real. A resolution is not in sight, but a Reformation is not impossible. [::] The mainstream interpretation of the root causes of the crisis (perverse incentive, too many papers) is insufficient. [::] The crisis is due to a transformed role: from emancipation and betterment of mankind to instrument of profit and growth [::] Scientists cannot resolve the problem alone and have high stakes in the preservation of the status quo. [::] Institutions are in denial pretending that current predicaments of science ...


Mediterranean habitat loss under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate change projections - Assessing impacts on the Natura 2000 protected area network

Vol. 28547 EN (2017),


[Executive summary] This report describes the main findings of Task 10, Mediterranean habitat loss, of the Peseta III project (Climate Impacts and Adaptation in Europe, focusing on Extremes, Adaptation and the 2030s). Using an approach that integrates results from 11 sectors, the main objective of the Peseta III project is to make a consistent multi-sectorial assessment of the projected impacts of climate change in Europe. [\n] The Mediterranean region is one of the 36 global hotspots of biological diversity [1] and the most ...


Unravelling the response of diurnal raptors to land use change in a highly dynamic landscape in northwestern Spain: an approach based on satellite earth observation data

European Journal of Wildlife Research, Vol. 63, No. 2. (2017), pp. 1-15,


Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is one of the main components of current anthropogenic global change. Unravelling the ecological response of biodiversity to the combined effect of land use change and other stressors is essential for effective conservation. For this purpose, we used co-inertia analysis to combine LULCC analysis of earth observation satellite data-derived maps and raptor data obtained from road censuses conducted in 2001 and 2014 at sampling unit level (10 km2 spatial resolution), in northwestern Spain (province ...


Generalized 3D fragmentation index derived from lidar point clouds

Open Geospatial Data, Software and Standards, Vol. 2, No. 1. (20 April 2017),


[Background] Point clouds with increased point densities create new opportunities for analyzing landscape structure in 3D space. Taking advantage of these dense point clouds we have extended a 2D forest fragmentation index developed for regional scale analyses into a 3D index for analyzing vegetation structure at a much finer scale. [Methods] Based on the presence or absence of points in a 3D raster (voxel model) the 3D fragmentation index is used to evaluate the configuration of a cell’s 3D neighborhood resulting in fragmentation classes ...


Intentional fire-spreading by “firehawk” raptors in Northern Australia

Journal of Ethnobiology, Vol. 37, No. 4. (1 December 2017), pp. 700-718,


We document Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and non-Indigenous observations of intentional fire-spreading by the fire-foraging raptors Black Kite (Milvus migrans), Whistling Kite (Haliastur sphenurus), and Brown Falcon (Falco berigora) in tropical Australian savannas. Observers report both solo and cooperative attempts, often successful, to spread wildfires intentionally via single-occasion or repeated transport of burning sticks in talons or beaks. This behavior, often represented in sacred ceremonies, is widely known to local people in the Northern Territory, where we carried out ethno-ornithological research from ...


Change impacts and adaptation in Europe, focusing on extremes and adaptation until the 2030s - PESETA-3 project, final sector report on Task 9: Droughts

Vol. 28990 EN (2017),


[Executive summary] This document reports the results of the analyses performed within the framework of the PESETA3 project regarding the Task 9 - Droughts. The main objective of this task is to provide robust scientific-based information to stakeholders and decision makers on the possible impacts of future climate scenarios on the occurrence of drought events. [\n] This report is focused on the analysis of the variations of soil moisture on the European continent, as well as of a soil moisture-based drought severity indicator ...


Will drought events become more frequent and severe in Europe?

International Journal of Climatology (09 October 2017),


As a result of climate change in recent past and unsustainable land management, drought became one of the most impacting disasters and, with the projected global warming, it is expected to progressively cause more damages by the end of the 21st century. This study investigates changes in drought occurrence, frequency, and severity in Europe in the next decades. A combined indicator based on the predominance of the drought signal over normal/wet conditions has been used. The indicator, which combines the standardized ...


Seventh national communication and third biennial report from the European Union under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - Required under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol

(December 2017)


[Executive summary] [::Introduction] The European Union (EU) and its Member States, both jointly and individually, have engaged in domestic and international action on climate change for a number of years and this has resulted in significant emission reductions. The staff working documents accompanying this report constitute the EU’s seventh national communication as required under Article 12 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Article 7 of the Kyoto Protocol, and its third biennial report as required under Decision 2/CP.17 of the ...


European Forest Types: toward an automated classification

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 75, No. 1. (2018), pp. 1-14,


[Key message] The outcome of the present study leads to the application of a spatially explicit rule-based expert system (RBES) algorithm aimed at automatically classifying forest areas according to the European Forest Types (EFT) system of nomenclature at pan-European scale level. With the RBES, the EFT system of nomenclature can be now easily implemented for objective, replicable, and automatic classification of field plots for forest inventories or spatial units (pixels or polygons) for thematic mapping. [Context] Forest Types classification systems are aimed at stratifying ...


Valuing mediterranean forests: towards total economic value

In Valuing mediterranean forests: towards total economic value (2005),


This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the economic value of Mediterranean forests, including not just commonly measured benefits such as timber but also, more importantly, the public goods and externalities they provide. It consists of 25 chapters structured into 3 parts: part 1 provides an overview of the problem and of the approach followed, and summarizes the results; part 2 includes detailed national level case studies of 18 countries and territories bordering the Mediterranean Sea (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Palestine, ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
Search within the whole INRMM meta-information database:
Search only within the INRMM-MiD publication records:
Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.