## Caliver: an R package for CALIbration and VERification of forest fire gridded model outputs

PLOS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 1. (2 January 2018), e0189419, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189419
Keywords:

### Abstract

The name caliver stands for CALIbration and VERification of forest fire gridded model outputs. This is a package developed for the R programming language and available under an APACHE-2 license from a public repository. In this paper we describe the functionalities of the package and give examples using publicly available datasets. Fire danger model outputs are taken from the modeling components of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) and observed burned areas from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED). Complete ...

## Attribution of recent temperature behaviour reassessed by a neural-network method

Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, No. 1. (15 December 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18011-8

### Abstract

Attribution studies on recent global warming by Global Climate Model (GCM) ensembles converge in showing the fundamental role of anthropogenic forcings as primary drivers of temperature in the last half century. However, despite their differences, all these models pertain to the same dynamical approach and come from a common ancestor, so that their very similar results in attribution studies are not surprising and cannot be considered as a clear proof of robustness of the results themselves. Thus, here we adopt a ...

## Cross-validation strategies for data with temporal, spatial, hierarchical, or phylogenetic structure

Ecography, Vol. 40, No. 8. (1 August 2017), pp. 913-929, https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.02881

### Abstract

Ecological data often show temporal, spatial, hierarchical (random effects), or phylogenetic structure. Modern statistical approaches are increasingly accounting for such dependencies. However, when performing cross-validation, these structures are regularly ignored, resulting in serious underestimation of predictive error. One cause for the poor performance of uncorrected (random) cross-validation, noted often by modellers, are dependence structures in the data that persist as dependence structures in model residuals, violating the assumption of independence. Even more concerning, because often overlooked, is that structured data also ...

## Fire forbids fifty-fifty forest

PLOS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 1. (19 January 2018), e0191027, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191027
Keywords:

### Abstract

Recent studies have interpreted patterns of remotely sensed tree cover as evidence that forest with intermediate tree cover might be unstable in the tropics, as it will tip into either a closed forest or a more open savanna state. Here we show that across all continents the frequency of wildfires rises sharply as tree cover falls below ~40%. Using a simple empirical model, we hypothesize that the steepness of this pattern causes intermediate tree cover (30‒60%) to be unstable for a ...

## A landscape of disgust

Science, Vol. 359, No. 6381. (15 March 2018), pp. 1213-1214, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aas8694
Keywords:

### Abstract

A rancid meal, a moist handshake, a pile of feces: These phenomena elicit disgust and avoidance that protect humans from our most pervasive consumer—infectious agents. This avoidance is not specific to humans. Various animals alter their behavior to avoid infection (1). For instance, Poirotte et al. recently showed that mandrills avoid parasite-contaminated feces and refrain from grooming infected individuals (2). These primates' nuanced ability to detect and alter their behavior in response to differential exposure risk suggests close parallels to the ...

## Slavery from Space: demonstrating the role for satellite remote sensing to inform evidence-based action related to UN SDG number 8

ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (March 2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2018.02.012
Keywords:

### Abstract

The most recent Global Slavery Index estimates that there are 40.3 million people enslaved globally. The UN’s Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development Goal number 8, section 8.7 specifically refers to the issue of forced labour: ending modern slavery and human trafficking, including child labour, in all forms by 2025. Although there is a global political commitment to ending slavery, one of the biggest barriers to doing so is having reliable and timely, spatially explicit and scalable data on slavery activity. The ...

## Statistical modeling: the two cultures (with comments and a rejoinder by the author)

Statistical Science, Vol. 16, No. 3. (August 2001), pp. 199-231, https://doi.org/10.1214/ss/1009213726

### Abstract

There are two cultures in the use of statistical modeling to reach conclusions from data. One assumes that the data are generated by a given stochastic data model. The other uses algorithmic models and treats the data mechanism as unknown. The statistical community has been committed to the almost exclusive use of data models. This commitment has led to irrelevant theory, questionable conclusions, and has kept statisticians from working on a large range of interesting current problems. Algorithmic modeling, both in ...

## Nigeria demographic and health survey 2013

(2014)
Keywords:

### Abstract

[Excerpt:: Foreword] Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2013 is the fourth survey of its kind to be implemented by the National Population Commission (NPC). As the agency charged with the responsibility of collecting, collating, and analysing demographic data, the Commission has been unrelenting in its efforts to provide reliable, accurate, and up-to-date data for the country. We hope that information contained in this report will assist policymakers and programme managers in monitoring and designing programmes and strategies for improving health and family planning services in Nigeria. ...

## Nigeria demographic and health survey 2008

(2009)
Keywords:

### Abstract

[Excerpt: Summary of findings] The 2008 Nigeria Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) is a nationally representative survey of 33,385 women age 15-49 and 15,486 men age 15-59. The 2008 NDHS is the fourth comprehensive survey conducted in Nigeria as part of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programme. The data are intended to furnish programme managers and policymakers with detailed information on levels and trends in fertility; nuptiality; sexual activity; fertility preferences; awareness and use of family planning methods; infants and young children feeding practices; nutritional status of mothers and young children; early childhood mortality and ...

## WHO child growth standards: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age - Methods and development

(2006)
Keywords:

### Abstract

[:Executive summary: Methods and development] In 1993 the World Health Organization (WHO) undertook a comprehensive review of the uses and interpretation of anthropometric references. The review concluded that the NCHS/WHO growth reference, which had been recommended for international use since the late 1970s, did not adequately represent early childhood growth and that new growth curves were necessary. The World Health Assembly endorsed this recommendation in 1994. In response WHO undertook the Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) between 1997 and 2003 to generate ...

## Stacked generalization

Neural Networks, Vol. 5, No. 2. (January 1992), pp. 241-259, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0893-6080(05)80023-1

### Abstract

This paper introduces stacked generalization, a scheme for minimizing the generalization error rate of one or more generalizers. Stacked generalization works by deducing the biases of the generalizer(s) with respect to a provided learning set. This deduction proceeds by generalizing in a second space whose inputs are (for example) the guesses of the original generalizers when taught with part of the learning set and trying to guess the rest of it, and whose output is (for example) the correct guess. When ...

## Creating spatial interpolation surfaces with DHS data

No. 11. (2015)
Keywords:

### Abstract

Improved understanding of sub-national geographic variation and inequity in demographic and health indicators is increasingly recognized as central to meeting development goals. Data from DHS surveys are critical to monitoring progress in these indicators but are generally not used to support sub-national evaluation below the first-level administrative unit. This study explored the potential of geostatistical approaches for the production of interpolated surfaces from GPS cluster located survey data, and for the prediction of gridded surfaces at 5×5km resolution. The impact of DHS cluster displacement on these interpolated ...

## Assessing comorbidity and correlates of wasting and stunting among children in Somalia using cross-sectional household surveys: 2007 to 2010

BMJ Open, Vol. 6, No. 3. (09 March 2016), e009854, https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009854
Keywords:

### Abstract

[Objective] Wasting and stunting may occur together at the individual child level; however, their shared geographic distribution and correlates remain unexplored. Understanding shared and separate correlates may inform interventions. We aimed to assess the spatial codistribution of wasting, stunting and underweight and investigate their shared correlates among children aged 6–59 months in Somalia. [Setting] Cross-sectional nutritional assessments surveys were conducted using structured interviews among communities in Somalia biannually from 2007 to 2010. A two-stage cluster sampling methodology was used to select children aged ...

## Hierarchical Bayesian modeling

In Subjective and Objective Bayesian Statistics: Principles, Models, and Applications, Second Edition (25 November 2002), pp. 336-358, https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470317105.ch14
edited by S. James Press
Keywords:

### Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] Hierarchical modeling is a widely used approach to building complex models by specifying a series of more simple conditional distributions. It naturally lends itself to Bayesian inference, especially using modern tools for Bayesian computation. In this chapter we first present essential concepts of hierarchical modeling, and then suggest its generality by presenting a series of widely used specific models. [...] [\n] [...] [Summary] In this chapter we have introduced hierarchical modeling as a very general approach to specifying complex models through a ...

## Poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices: their inter-spatial relationship in West Africa

International Health, Vol. 7, No. 2. (March 2015), pp. 99-106, https://doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihv005
Keywords:

### Abstract

[Background] Previous analyses have shown the individual correlations between poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). However, generally these analyses did not explore the statistical interconnections between poverty, health outcomes and NDVI. [Methods] In this research aspatial methods (principal component analysis) and spatial models (variography, factorial kriging and cokriging) were applied to investigate the correlations and spatial relationships between intensity of poverty, health (expressed as child mortality and undernutrition), and NDVI for a large area of West ...

## Mapping under-5 and neonatal mortality in Africa, 2000–15: a baseline analysis for the Sustainable Development Goals

The Lancet, Vol. 390, No. 10108. (November 2017), pp. 2171-2182, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(17)31758-0
Keywords:

### Abstract

[Background] During the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, many countries in Africa achieved marked reductions in under-5 and neonatal mortality. Yet the pace of progress toward these goals substantially varied at the national level, demonstrating an essential need for tracking even more local trends in child mortality. With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, which established ambitious targets for improving child survival by 2030, optimal intervention planning and targeting will require understanding of trends and rates of progress ...

## Fine resolution mapping of population age-structures for health and development applications

Journal of The Royal Society Interface, Vol. 12, No. 105. (18 March 2015), 20150073, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2015.0073
Keywords:

### Abstract

The age-group composition of populations varies considerably across the world, and obtaining accurate, spatially detailed estimates of numbers of children under 5 years is important in designing vaccination strategies, educational planning or maternal healthcare delivery. Traditionally, such estimates are derived from population censuses, but these can often be unreliable, outdated and of coarse resolution for resource-poor settings. Focusing on Nigeria, we use nationally representative household surveys and their cluster locations to predict the proportion of the under-five population in 1 × ...

## Nigeria AIMS geocoded research release, version 1.3.1

In AidData Datasets (2016)
Keywords:

### Abstract

[Excerpt: Full description] This geocoded dataset release represents all projects in Nigeria's Development Assistance Database (DAD). It tracks 595 projects across 1843 locations between 1988 and 2014. Data for $2,116,331,293.00 in geocoded commitments and$6,093,125,384.00 in geocoded disbursements are contained within the dataset. The included "project.tsv," "locations.tsv," and "transactions.tsv" are structured so as to be combinable with other v1.0 geocoded dataset releases. All tables in the data folder can be joined by DAD project ids. This ...

## Paintings predict the distribution of species, or the challenge of selecting environmental predictors and evaluation statistics

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 27, No. 2. (February 2018), pp. 245-256, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12684

### Abstract

[Aim] Species distribution modelling, a family of statistical methods that predicts species distributions from a set of occurrences and environmental predictors, is now routinely applied in many macroecological studies. However, the reliability of evaluation metrics usually employed to validate these models remains questioned. Moreover, the emergence of online databases of environmental variables with global coverage, especially climatic, has favoured the use of the same set of standard predictors. Unfortunately, the selection of variables is too rarely based on a careful examination of ...

## Applied regression and multilevel/hierarchical models

(2006)
Keywords:

### Abstract

Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models is a comprehensive manual for the applied researcher who wants to perform data analysis using linear and nonlinear regression and multilevel models. The book introduces and demonstrates a wide variety of models, at the same time instructing the reader in how to fit these models using freely available software packages. The book illustrates the concepts by working through scores of real data examples that have arisen in the authors’ own applied research, with programming code provided for each one. Topics ...

## New global forest/non-forest maps from ALOS PALSAR data (2007–2010)

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 155 (December 2014), pp. 13-31, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2014.04.014
Keywords:

### Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Global mosaics of ALOS-SAR data were generated annually from 2007 to 2010. [::] Region variability in L-band HH and HV gamma-naught (γ0) for forests was observed. [::] Region-specific thresholds were applied to produce a global forest/non-forest map. [::] The overall agreement was 95%. [::] Annual decreases of HH and HV γ0 suggest a decrease in forest and smoothing Earth. [Abstract] Four global mosaics of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Arrayed L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) HH and HV polarization data were generated at 25 m ...

## Global land cover mapping at 30m resolution: A POK-based operational approach

ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vol. 103 (May 2015), pp. 7-27, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.09.002
Keywords:

### Abstract

Global Land Cover (GLC) information is fundamental for environmental change studies, land resource management, sustainable development, and many other societal benefits. Although GLC data exists at spatial resolutions of 300 m and 1000 m, a 30 m resolution mapping approach is now a feasible option for the next generation of GLC products. Since most significant human impacts on the land system can be captured at this scale, a number of researchers are focusing on such products. This paper reports the operational ...

## Rethinking wildfires and forest watersheds

Science, Vol. 359, No. 6379. (01 March 2018), pp. 1001.2-1002, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aar8120
Keywords:

### Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] The secondary threats of wildfires to water supply are particularly concerning, as almost two-thirds of municipalities in North America receive their drinking water from forested areas [...]. Key threats include increased potential for erosion, landslides, debris flows, floods, and introduction of contaminants to streams, with potentially catastrophic implications for community infrastructure, drinking water treatment, public health, and aquatic ecosystem health [...]. [\n] Given the rising threats and costs associated with the current wildfire trend, we must change the way we manage ...

## Agricultural policy can reduce wildfires

Science, Vol. 359, No. 6379. (01 March 2018), pp. 1001.1-1001, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aat1359

### Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Agriculture is an important driver of European wildfires. It is a major source of fire ignitions [...]. Additionally, farmland abandonment and policies promoting forestry increase fire hazard, as they lead to vegetation growth and fuel build-up in the landscape [...]. However, agriculture is also part of the solution. Agricultural areas, such as crops, orchards, and grasslands, are much less fire-prone, particularly if they include irrigated crops [...]. The European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a powerful financial instrument ...

## Transparency in authors’ contributions and responsibilities to promote integrity in scientific publication

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 11. (13 February 2018), pp. 2557-2560, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1715374115

### Abstract

In keeping with the growing movement in scientific publishing toward transparency in data and methods, we propose changes to journal authorship policies and procedures to provide insight into which author is responsible for which contributions, better assurance that the list is complete, and clearly articulated standards to justify earning authorship credit. To accomplish these goals, we recommend that journals adopt common and transparent standards for authorship, outline responsibilities for corresponding authors, adopt the Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT) (docs.casrai.org/CRediT) methodology for attributing ...

## Transparent author credit

Science, Vol. 359, No. 6379. (01 March 2018), pp. 961-961, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aat4136

### Abstract

Authorship on papers is one of the major currencies of the scientific enterprise. Nevertheless, the contributions of different authors to a given paper have remained relatively opaque. Contributions are generally inferred from the order of authors, and implications of position on the authorship list vary between different investigators and scientific fields. A year ago, a group of editors and publishers across a wide range of disciplines met to discuss how to provide a more systemic solution to make author contributions more ...

## Secondo rapporto sullo stato del capitale naturale in Italia

(2018)

### Abstract

[:Executive summary (in Italian)] Il 2017 ha segnato un importante punto di svolta dell’articolato e lungo percorso di sostenibilità del nostro Paese. Nel quadro di riferimento dettato dall’Agenda 2030 dell’ONU sullo Sviluppo Sostenibile e dalla Strategia nazionale di Sviluppo Sostenibile (SNSvS), l’elaborazione del Primo Rapporto sullo Stato del Capitale Naturale in Italia ha consentito di mettere in luce, per la prima volta, al complesso sistema istituzionale il fondamentale ruolo ricoperto dal Capitale Naturale italiano rispetto al sistema socio-economico collettivo del Paese. [\n] “Dov’è ...

### References

1. Alberini, A., Rosato, P., Longo, A., Zanatta, V., 2004. Information and Willingness to Pay in a Contingent Valuation Study: the Value of S. Erasmo in the Lagoon of Venice. Nota di lavoro FEEM N° 19/2004.
2. Alberini, A., Zanatta, V., 2005. Combining Actual and Contingent Behaviour to Estimate the Value of Sports Fishing in the Lagoon of Venice. Nota di lavoro FEEM N° 44/2005.
3. Alberini, A., Zanatta, V., Rosato, P., 2007. Combining

## Biomass production, supply, uses and flows in the European Union - First results from an integrated assessment

Vol. 28993 EN (2018), https://doi.org/10.2760/539520
Keywords:

### Abstract

[Executive summary] This report illustrates part of the results from the first two years of JRC biomass study, carried out in the context of the mandate on the provision to EC services of data and analysis on biomass flow, supply and demand on a long-term basis. [\n] The JRC biomass study has a wide scope and is a long-term endeavour, not having a pre-defined duration. Here we refer to the results after the first two years, with a focus on the assessments of ...

## Towards an understanding of the evolutionary role of fire in animals

Evolutionary Ecology (2018), pp. 1-13, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10682-018-9927-6
Keywords:

### Abstract

Wildfires underpin the dynamics and diversity of many ecosystems worldwide, and plants show a plethora of adaptive traits for persisting recurrent fires. Many fire-prone ecosystems also harbor a rich fauna; however, knowledge about adaptive traits to fire in animals remains poorly explored. We review existing literature and suggest that fire is an important evolutionary driver for animal diversity because (1) many animals are present in fire-prone landscapes and may have structural and phenotypic characters that contribute to adaptation to these open ...

## On the use of cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria evaluation in ex-ante impact assessment

Vol. 28768 EN (2017), https://doi.org/10.2760/311199

### Abstract

When a public administration wishes to implement policies, there is a need of comparing different options and valuating and evaluating them to assess their social attractiveness. Traditionally, welfare economics has used cost-benefit analysis based on the Kaldor-Hicks compensation principle, which was invented to achieve two clear objectives: [::1] To compare individuals’ preferences according to the efficiency oriented utilitarian calculus, explicitly avoiding the principle one individual, one vote. [::2] To implement an objective evaluation criterion, that could be accepted in the framework of the ...

## Why current negative-emissions strategies remain ‘magical thinking’

Nature, Vol. 554, No. 7693. (22 February 2018), pp. 404-404, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-02184-x
Keywords:

### Abstract

[Excerpt] Decarbonization of the world’s economy would bring colossal disruption of the status quo. It’s a desire to avoid that change — political, financial and otherwise — that drives many of the climate sceptics. Still, as this journal has noted numerous times, it’s clear that many policymakers who argue that emissions must be curbed, and fast, don’t seem to appreciate the scale of what’s required. [...] [\n] The 2015 Paris agreement gave politicians an answer: negative emissions. Technology to reduce the amount ...

## Pine Wilt Disease: a threat to European forestry

European Journal of Plant Pathology In European Journal of Plant Pathology, Vol. 133, No. 1. (24 December 2012), pp. 89-99, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-011-9924-x
Keywords:

### Abstract

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus , the pinewood nematode (PWN) and causal agent of Pine Wilt Disease (PWD), was detected for the first time, in 1999, in Portugal, and in Europe. Despite the efforts of the Portuguese National Forestry and Quarantine Authorities, the disease has spread to new forest areas in the centre of mainland Portugal, in 2008, and to the island of Madeira, in 2009. More recently, two foci of PWD were reported from Spain. The free circulation of non-treated wood and wood ...

## Droughts, floods, and wildfire

In Climate science special report: fourth national climate assessment, volume I (2017), pp. 231-253, https://doi.org/10.7930/J0CJ8BNN
Keywords:

### Abstract

[Excerpt:Key findings] [::1] Recent droughts and associated heat waves have reached record intensity in some regions of the United States; however, by geographical scale and duration, the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s remains the benchmark drought and extreme heat event in the historical record (very high confidence). While by some measures drought has decreased over much of the continental United States in association with long-term increases in precipitation, neither the precipitation increases nor inferred drought decreases have been confidently attributed to ...

## Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification

Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 5. (11 October 2007), pp. 1633-1644, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007
Keywords:

### Abstract

Although now over 100 years old, the classification of climate originally formulated by Wladimir Köppen and modified by his collaborators and successors, is still in widespread use. It is widely used in teaching school and undergraduate courses on climate. It is also still in regular use by researchers across a range of disciplines as a basis for climatic regionalisation of variables and for assessing the output of global climate models. Here we have produced a new global map of climate using ...

## Pest categorisation of Bretziella fagacearum

EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2. (February 2018), e05185, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5185

### Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health (PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Bretziella fagacearum, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Ceratocystidaceae. The species was moved from the genus Ceratocystis to a new genus Bretziella following phylogenetic analysis of the species and its close relatives. The former species name Ceratocystis fagacearum is used in the Council Directive 2000/29/EC. The pathogen is regulated in Annex IAI as a harmful organism whose introduction into the ...

### References

1. Ambourn, A.K., Juzwik, J., Moon, R.D., 2005. Seasonal dispersal of the oak wilt fungus by Colopterus truncatus and Carpophilus sayi in Minnesota. Plant Disease 89, 1067–1076.
2. Appel, D.N., 1995. The oak wilt enigma: perspectives from the Texas epidemic. Annual Review of Phytopathology 33, 103–118.
3. Appel, D.N., Maggio, R.C., Nelson, E.L., Jeger, M.J., 1989. Measurement of expanding oak wilt centers in live oak. Phytopathology 79, 1318–1322.
4. Baker, R., Candresse,

## Spatially-explicit models of global tree density

Scientific Data, Vol. 3 (16 August 2016), 160069, https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2016.69
Keywords:

### Abstract

Remote sensing and geographic analysis of woody vegetation provide means of evaluating the distribution of natural resources, patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem structure, and socio-economic drivers of resource utilization. While these methods bring geographic datasets with global coverage into our day-to-day analytic spheres, many of the studies that rely on these strategies do not capitalize on the extensive collection of existing field data. We present the methods and maps associated with the first spatially-explicit models of global tree density, which relied ...

## Range dynamics of mountain plants decrease with elevation

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 8. (20 February 2018), pp. 1848-1853, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1713936115
Keywords:

### Abstract

[Significance] Shifts of upper range limits are a key response of mountain biota to climate change. However, assessing whether species profit or suffer from the changing climate requires the simultaneous evaluation of changes in species’ lower and upper range limits, optima, and abundances. Here, we provide an integrated assessment for 183 plant species of the European Alps. We demonstrate that, over recent decades, increases in abundance were more pronounced than range shifts, suggesting an in-filling process which decreases in intensity with increasing ...

## Iterative random forests to discover predictive and stable high-order interactions

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 8. (20 February 2018), pp. 1943-1948, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1711236115
Keywords:

### Abstract

[Significance] We developed a predictive, stable, and interpretable tool: the iterative random forest algorithm (iRF). iRF discovers high-order interactions among biomolecules with the same order of computational cost as random forests. We demonstrate the efficacy of iRF by finding known and promising interactions among biomolecules, of up to fifth and sixth order, in two data examples in transcriptional regulation and alternative splicing. [Abstract] Genomics has revolutionized biology, enabling the interrogation of whole transcriptomes, genome-wide binding sites for proteins, and many other molecular processes. However, ...

## Classification and interaction in random forests

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 8. (20 February 2018), pp. 1690-1692, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1800256115
Keywords:

### Abstract

Suppose you are a physician with a patient whose complaint could arise from multiple diseases. To attain a specific diagnosis, you might ask yourself a series of yes/no questions depending on observed features describing the patient, such as clinical test results and reported symptoms. As some questions rule out certain diagnoses early on, each answer determines which question you ask next. With about a dozen features and extensive medical knowledge, you could create a simple flow chart to connect and order ...

## Maxent is not a presence-absence method: a comment on Thibaud et al

Methods in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 5, No. 11. (November 2014), pp. 1192-1197, https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.12252

### Abstract

[Summary] [::1] Thibaud et al. (Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2014) present a framework for simulating species and evaluating the relative effects of factors affecting the predictions from species distribution models (SDMs). They demonstrate their approach by generating presence–absence data sets for different simulated species and analysing them using four modelling methods: three presence–absence methods and Maxent, which is a presence-background modelling tool. One of their results is striking: that their use of Maxent performs well in estimating occupancy probabilities and even ...

## Economic value of ecological information in ecosystem-based natural resource management depends on exploitation history

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 7. (13 February 2018), pp. 1658-1663, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1716858115

### Abstract

[Significance] Natural resource management is evolving toward a more holistic approach that acknowledges ecological connections among species. To date, there has been no demonstration of where or when this approach provides economic benefits. Here we find only modest economic benefits from having detailed knowledge of ecological linkages between species. However, the costs of incomplete or incorrect knowledge are unevenly distributed across user groups and are greater after historical overfishing. The ecosystem approach to natural resource management might therefore provide the greatest benefit ...

## Discounting... on stilts

The University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 74, No. 1. (2007), pp. 119-138

### Abstract

[Excerpt] Jeremy Bentham famously described the concept of natural rights as “nonsense upon stilts.” This Response argues that cost-benefit analysis (CBA)—a contemporary applied version of Bentham’s utilitarianism for public policy analysis—is also nonsensical in that CBA purports to resolve questions, the answers to which have already been subsumed within the framework’s architecture. In particular, CBA subsumes vital questions of intergenerational equity through its use of an exponential discount factor to adjust future costs and benefits to a present value. This discounting procedure has the practical effect of dramatically diminishing the apparent ...

## The limits of cost/benefit analysis when disasters loom

Global Policy, Vol. 7 (May 2016), pp. 56-66, https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-5899.12279

### Abstract

[Abstract] Advances in estimating the costs and benefits of climate change policies are a welcome development, but a full-scale cost/benefit analysis that seeks to reduce complex value trade-offs to a single metric of net benefit maximization hides many important public policy issues, especially for disasters and catastrophes that are large, discontinuous, irreversible and uncertain. States should obtain public input on such policies. These policies involve value trade-offs that can be informed by technocratic estimates of costs, benefits and risk. However, such analyses ...

## The science of value: economic expertise and the valuation of human life in US federal regulatory agencies

Social Studies of Science, Vol. 47, No. 4. (21 March 2017), pp. 441-465, https://doi.org/10.1177/0306312717693465

### Abstract

This article explores efforts to apply economic logic to human life. To do so, it looks at federal regulatory agencies, where government planners and policy makers have spent over a century trying to devise a scientifically sound way to measure the economic value of lives lost or saved by public programs. The methods they have drawn on, however, have changed drastically in the past 40 years, shifting from a ‘human capital’ approach based on models of economic productivity and producing relatively low ...

## Adapt to more wildfire in western North American forests as climate changes

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 18. (02 May 2017), pp. 4582-4590, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1617464114

### Abstract

Wildfires across western North America have increased in number and size over the past three decades, and this trend will continue in response to further warming. As a consequence, the wildland–urban interface is projected to experience substantially higher risk of climate-driven fires in the coming decades. Although many plants, animals, and ecosystem services benefit from fire, it is unknown how ecosystems will respond to increased burning and warming. Policy and management have focused primarily on specified resilience approaches aimed at resistance ...

## Gradientes de temperaturas en la montaña española - Surface temperature lapse rates on the spanish mountains

In Riscos associados a Fenómenos Meteorológicos e Geofisicos - 10º Simpósio de Meteorologia e Geofisica da APMG - 18º Encontro Luso-Espanhol de Meteorologia (2017)
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### Abstract

[Abstract] A realistic estimation of how surface temperatures vary with elevation is important for climatic, hydrological and ecosystem studies. A fixed lapse rate of 6.5ºC/1.000 meters is generally assumed for the whole conditions and locations, but surface temperature lapse rates vary in space and time due to wind, relative humidity or local topography. In this paper we present an approximation lapse rates estimated in the main Spanish mountains using the database from the Spanish Meteorological Council (AEMET) weather stations network. The results ...

## A versatile data-intensive computing platform for information retrieval from big geospatial data

Future Generation Computer Systems, Vol. 81 (April 2018), pp. 30-40
edited by Elsevier
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### Abstract

The increasing amount of free and open geospatial data of interest to major societal questions calls for the development of innovative data-intensive computing platforms for the efficient and effective extraction of information from these data. This paper proposes a versatile petabyte-scale platform based on commodity hardware and equipped with open-source software for the operating system, the distributed file system, and the task scheduler for batch processing as well as the containerization of user specific applications. Interactive visualization and processing based on ...

## Deep Learning

(2016)
edited by M. I. T. Press
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### Abstract

The Deep Learning textbook is a resource intended to help students and practitioners enter the field of machine learning in general and deep learning in particular. The online version of the book is now complete and will remain available online for free. ...

## Inside-outside net: detecting objects in context with skip pooling and recurrent neural networks

In 2016 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2016) (2016), pp. 2874-2883, https://doi.org/10.1109/CVPR.2016.314

### Abstract

It is well known that contextual and multi-scale representations are important for accurate visual recognition. In this paper we present the Inside-Outside Net (ION), an object detector that exploits information both inside and outside the region of interest. Contextual information outside the region of interest is integrated using spatial recurrent neural networks. Inside, we use skip pooling to extract information at multiple scales and levels of abstraction. Through extensive experiments we evaluate the design space and provide readers with an overview of what tricks of the trade are ...

## Beyond ∖newcommand with xparse

TUGboat, Vol. 31, No. 1. (2010), pp. 80-83

### Abstract


Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database. http://mfkp.org/INRMM/

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