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Selection: library 6030 articles 

 

Scaling up the diversity-resilience relationship with trait databases and remote sensing data: the recovery of productivity after wildfire

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, No. 4. (April 2016), pp. 1421-1432, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13174

Abstract

Understanding the mechanisms underlying ecosystem resilience – why some systems have an irreversible response to disturbances while others recover – is critical for conserving biodiversity and ecosystem function in the face of global change. Despite the widespread acceptance of a positive relationship between biodiversity and resilience, empirical evidence for this relationship remains fairly limited in scope and localized in scale. Assessing resilience at the large landscape and regional scales most relevant to land management and conservation practices has been limited by ...

 

Newly discovered landscape traps produce regime shifts in wet forests

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 108, No. 38. (20 September 2011), pp. 15887-15891, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1110245108

Abstract

We describe the “landscape trap” concept, whereby entire landscapes are shifted into, and then maintained (trapped) in, a highly compromised structural and functional state as the result of multiple temporal and spatial feedbacks between human and natural disturbance regimes. The landscape trap concept builds on ideas like stable alternative states and other relevant concepts, but it substantively expands the conceptual thinking in a number of unique ways. In this paper, we (i) review the literature to develop the concept of landscape ...

 

Effects of logging on fire regimes in moist forests

  
Conservation Letters, Vol. 2, No. 6. (December 2009), pp. 271-277, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263x.2009.00080.x

Abstract

Does logging affect the fire proneness of forests? This question often arises after major wildfires, but data suggest that answers differ substantially among different types of forest. Logging can alter key attributes of forests by changing microclimates, stand structure and species composition, fuel characteristics, the prevalence of ignition points, and patterns of landscape cover. These changes may make some kinds of forests more prone to increased probability of ignition and increased fire severity. Such forests include tropical rainforests where fire was ...

 

Patterns of fire severity and forest conditions in the western Klamath Mountains, California

  
Conservation Biology, Vol. 18, No. 4. (August 2004), pp. 927-936, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00493.x

Abstract

The Klamath-Siskiyou region of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon supports globally outstanding temperate biodiversity. Fire has been important in the evolutionary history that shaped this diversity, but recent human influences have altered the fire environment. We tested for modern human impacts on the fire regime by analyzing temporal patterns in fire extent and spatial patterns of fire severity in relation to vegetation structure, past fire occurrence, roads, and timber management in a 98,814-ha area burned in 1987. Fire severity was mapped ...

 

Emission budgets and pathways consistent with limiting warming to 1.5[thinsp][deg]C

  
Nature Geoscience, Vol. advance online publication (18 September 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo3031

Abstract

The Paris Agreement has opened debate on whether limiting warming to 1.5 °C is compatible with current emission pledges and warming of about 0.9 °C from the mid-nineteenth century to the present decade. We show that limiting cumulative post-2015 CO2 emissions to about 200 GtC would limit post-2015 warming to less than 0.6 °C in 66% of Earth system model members of the CMIP5 ensemble with no mitigation of other climate drivers, increasing to 240 GtC with ambitious non-CO2 mitigation. We combine a simple climate–carbon-cycle model ...

 

Limiting global warming to 1.5 °C may still be possible

  
Nature (18 September 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/nature.2017.22627

Abstract

Analysis suggests that researchers have underestimated how much carbon humanity can emit before reaching this level of warming. [Excerpt] A team of climate scientists has delivered a rare bit of good news: it could be easier than previously thought to limit global warming to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, as called for in the 2015 Paris climate agreement. But even if the team is right — and some researchers are already questioning the conclusions — heroic efforts to curb greenhouse-gas emissions will ...

 

The concept of potential natural vegetation: an epitaph?

  
Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 21, No. 6. (December 2010), pp. 1172-1178, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2010.01218.x

Abstract

We discuss the usefulness of the concept of Potential Natural Vegetation (PNV), which describes the expected state of mature vegetation in the absence of human intervention. We argue that it is impossible to model PNV because of (i) the methodological problems associated to its definition and (ii) the issues related to the ecosystems dynamics.We conclude that the approach to characterizing PNV is unrealistic and provides scenarios with limited predictive power. In places with a long-term human history, interpretations of PNV need ...

 

Human factors of fire occurrence in the Mediterranean

  
In Earth Observation of Wildland Fires in Mediterranean Ecosystems (2009), pp. 149-170, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-01754-4_11
edited by Emilio Chuvieco

Abstract

The Mediterranean region accounts the larger proportion of human caused fires in the world (95%) followed by South Asia (90%), South America (85%) and Northeast Asia (80%) (FAO 2007). Socio-economic changes which are occurring in Europe along with global warming result in an augment of fire risk. Systematic and reliable information on fire causes is necessary in order to improve wildland fire management. However, collection of information on forest fire causes and motivations is still quite restricted in most countries around ...

 

A new kind of drought: US record low windiness in 2015

  
IEEE Earthzine, Vol. 9 (2016), 1412470

Abstract

Widespread calming of the wind sapped U.S. wind energy power output in 2015, driven by the same weather patterns responsible for California’s severe drought. [Excerpt: Summary and conclusions] 2015 was a year of records: [::] It was the warmest year on record globally. [::] A highly anomalous ocean warming event in the northeast Pacific (NPM) strongly controlled the weather and climate over North America. [::] A high amplitude ridge of unparalleled strength and longevity over western North America dominated until April 2015. [::] Record low ...

 

Continued increase of extreme El Niño frequency long after 1.5 °C warming stabilization

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 8. (24 July 2017), pp. 568-572, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3351

Abstract

The Paris Agreement aims to constrain global mean temperature (GMT) increases to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, with an aspirational target of 1.5 °C. However, the pathway to these targets and the impacts of a 1.5 °C and 2 °C warming on extreme El Niño and La Niña events—which severely influence weather patterns, agriculture, ecosystems, public health and economies—is little known. Here, by analysing climate models participating in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project’s Phase 5 (CMIP5; ref. 17) under a most likely emission scenario, we ...

 

Science of preparedness

  
Science, Vol. 357, No. 6356. (14 September 2017), pp. 1073-1073, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aap9025

Abstract

Our hearts go out to those affected by hurricanes Harvey and Irma and by earlier monsoons across South Asia. These events are compelling reminders of the important role that science must play in preparing for disasters. But preparation is challenging, as reflected in the many facets of the “science of preparedness.” Certainly, modeling and forecasting storms are critical, but so are analyses of how agencies, communities, and individuals interact to understand and implement preparedness initiatives. [Excerpt] [...] Long-range estimates of the number ...

 

The sustainable scientist

  
Science, Vol. 357, No. 6356. (14 September 2017), pp. 1202-1202, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.357.6356.1202

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] the goal is to stride across the finish line—whether you are completing a postdoc, getting tenure, or reaching some other career goal—with a smile on your face, not in a state of collapse. [\n] But how? A sustainable scientist is still a hard-working scientist. Combining hard work with laserlike focus and ruthless time management is an important step toward making your life sustainable. Even more important is opportunity management. [\n] [...] Similarly, developing a personal work philosophy can help you allocate your ...

 

Investigation of root reinforcement decay after a forest fire in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) protection forest

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 400 (September 2017), pp. 339-352, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.06.005

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Engineering resilience of Scots pine 4 years after forest fire has been quantified. [::] Spatial distribution of root reinforcement (RR) has been modeled. [::] RR decay by a factor of 3.6, 4 years after a stand replacing forest fire. [::] Natural regeneration has almost no root reinforcement 4 years after fire. [::] Decay of root mechanical properties determine most of RR loss. [Abstract] Natural disturbances may cause a temporary reduction or elimination of the protective effect of forests. The management of protection forests aims to influence ...

 

An overview of CMIP5 and the experiment design

  
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 93, No. 4. (7 October 2011), pp. 485-498, https://doi.org/10.1175/bams-d-11-00094.1

Abstract

The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) will produce a state-of-the- art multimodel dataset designed to advance our knowledge of climate variability and climate change. Researchers worldwide are analyzing the model output and will produce results likely to underlie the forthcoming Fifth Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Unprecedented in scale and attracting interest from all major climate modeling groups, CMIP5 includes “long term” simulations of twentieth-century climate and projections for the twenty-first century and ...

 

Addressing climate information needs at the regional level: the CORDEX framework

  
World Meteorological Organization Bulletin, Vol. 58, No. 3. (2009), pp. 175-183

Abstract

[Excerpt: Summary and conclusions] In this article, we present a new framework for regional climate modelling and downscaling, called CORDEX, with the two-fold aim of developing a coordinated framework for evaluating and improving RCD techniques and producing a new generation of RCD-based fine-scale climate projections for identified regions worldwide. We envision that CORDEX will provide a framework for better coordination of RCD-related research and modelling activities within the regional climate modelling and downscaling communities. Past experience has shown that projects such as ...

 

Wildfire impacts on the processes that generate debris flows in burned watersheds

  
Natural Hazards In Natural Hazards, Vol. 61, No. 1. (17 March 2012), pp. 217-227, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-011-9769-9

Abstract

Every year, and in many countries worldwide, wildfires cause significant damage and economic losses due to both the direct effects of the fires and the subsequent accelerated runoff, erosion, and debris flow. Wildfires can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of watersheds by changing the infiltration characteristics and erodibility of the soil, which leads to decreased rainfall infiltration, significantly increased overland flow and runoff in channels, and movement of soil. Debris-flow activity is among the most destructive consequences of these ...

 

How do root and soil characteristics affect the erosion-reducing potential of plant species?

  
Ecological Engineering (August 2017), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.08.001

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Fibrous roots are very effective in reducing flow erosion rates in sandy soils. [::] Soil texture and bulk density affects the erosion-reducing potential of plant roots. [::] Increasing soil bulk density hampers the erosion-reducing potential of fine roots. [::] Increasing sand content hampers the erosion-reducing potential of tap roots. [Abstract] Plant roots can be very effective in stabilizing the soil against concentrated flow erosion. So far, most research on the erosion-reducing potential of plant roots was conducted on loamy soils. However susceptible to incisive erosion ...

 

Exploring spatial patterns and drivers of forest fires in Portugal (1980–2014)

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 573 (December 2016), pp. 1190-1202, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.121

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Wildfires are irregularly distributed in Portugal, both in ignitions and burnt area. [::] In 80% of the municipality's ignition density reveal a positive trend since the 80s. [::] Geographically Weighted Regression was used to identify relevant municipal drivers of fires. [::] Topography and population density were significant factors in municipal ignitions. [::] Topography and uncultivated land were significant factors in municipal burnt area. [Abstract] Information on the spatial incidence of fire ignition density and burnt area, trends and drivers of wildfires is vitally important in providing ...

 

Analysis of recent spatial–temporal evolution of human driving factors of wildfires in Spain

  
Natural Hazards, Vol. 84, No. 3. (2016), pp. 2049-2070, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-016-2533-4

Abstract

Fire regimes are strongly dependent on human activities. Understanding the relative influence of human factors on wildfire is an important ongoing task especially in human-dominated landscapes such as the Mediterranean, where anthropogenic ignitions greatly surpass natural ignitions and human activities are modifying historical fire regimes. Most human drivers of wildfires have a temporal dimension, far beyond the appearance of change, and it is for this reason that we require an historical/temporal analytical perspective coupled to the spatial dimension. In this paper, ...

 

Impacts of future land use/land cover on wildfire occurrence in the Madrid region (Spain)

  
Regional Environmental Change In Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 16, No. 4. (2016), pp. 1047-1061, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-015-0819-9

Abstract

This paper assesses the relative importance of socioeconomic factors linked to fire occurrence through the simulation of future land use/land cover (LULC) change scenarios in the Madrid region (Spain). This region is a clear example of the socioeconomic changes that have been occurring over recent decades in the European Mediterranean as well as their impact on LULC and fire occurrence. Using the LULC changes observed between 1990 and 2006 as a reference, future scenarios were run up to 2025 with the ...

 

The effects of thinning and similar stand treatments on fire behavior in Western forests

  

Abstract

In the West, thinning and partial cuttings are being considered for treating millions of forested acres that are overstocked and prone to wildfire. The objectives of these treatments include tree growth redistribution, tree species regulation, timber harvest, wildlife habitat improvement, and wildfire-hazard reduction. Depending on the forest type and its structure, thinning has both positive and negative impacts on crown fire potential. Crown bulk density, surface fuel, and crown base height are primary stand characteristics that determine crown fire potential. Thinning ...

 

A comparison of landscape fuel treatment strategies to mitigate wildland fire risk in the urban interface and preserve old forest structure

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 259, No. 8. (31 March 2010), pp. 1556-1570, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.01.032

Abstract

We simulated fuel reduction treatments on a 16,000 ha study area in Oregon, US, to examine tradeoffs between placing fuel treatments near residential structures within an urban interface, versus treating stands in the adjacent wildlands to meet forest health and ecological restoration goals. The treatment strategies were evaluated by simulating 10,000 wildfires with random ignition locations and calculating burn probabilities by 0.5 m flame length categories for each 30 m × 30 m pixel in the study area. The burn conditions for the wildfires were chosen to ...

 

Retrieval of forest fuel moisture content using a coupled radiative transfer model

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 95 (September 2017), pp. 290-302, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2017.06.006

Abstract

Forest fuel moisture content (FMC) dynamics are paramount to assessing the forest wildfire risk and its behavior. This variable can be retrieved from remotely sensed data using a radiative transfer model (RTM). However, previous studies generally treated the background of forest canopy as soil surface while ignored the fact that the soil may be covered by grass canopy. In this study, we focused on retrieving FMC of such forestry structure by coupling two RTMs: PROSAIL and PRO-GeoSail. The spectra of lower ...

 

Spatial patterns and drivers of fire occurrence and its future trend under climate change in a boreal forest of Northeast China

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 18, No. 6. (June 2012), pp. 2041-2056, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02649.x

Abstract

Understanding the spatial patterns of fire occurrence and its response to climate change is vital to fire risk mitigation and vegetation management. Focusing on boreal forests in Northeast China, we used spatial point pattern analysis to model fire occurrence reported from 1965 to 2009. Our objectives were to quantitate the relative importance of biotic, abiotic, and human influences on patterns of fire occurrence and to map the spatial distribution of fire occurrence density (number of fires occurring over a given area ...

 

Fire regime changes in the Western Mediterranean Basin: from fuel-limited to drought-driven fire regime

  
Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 110, No. 1-2. (1 January 2012), pp. 215-226, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0060-6

Abstract

Wildfires are an integral part of Mediterranean ecosystems; humans impact on landscapes imply changes in fuel amount and continuity, and thus in fire regime. We tested the hypothesis that fire regime changed in western Mediterranean Basin during the last century using time series techniques. We first compiled a 130-year fire history for the Valencia province (Spain, Eastern Iberian Peninsula, Western Mediterranean Basin) from contemporary statistics plus old forest administration dossiers and newspapers. We also compiled census on rural population and climatic ...

 

Human influence on California fire regimes

  
Ecological Applications, Vol. 17, No. 5. (July 2007), pp. 1388-1402, https://doi.org/10.1890/06-1128.1

Abstract

Periodic wildfire maintains the integrity and species composition of many ecosystems, including the mediterranean-climate shrublands of California. However, human activities alter natural fire regimes, which can lead to cascading ecological effects. Increased human ignitions at the wildland–urban interface (WUI) have recently gained attention, but fire activity and risk are typically estimated using only biophysical variables. Our goal was to determine how humans influence fire in California and to examine whether this influence was linear, by relating contemporary (2000) and historic (1960–2000) ...

 

Ecological stability of mixed-species forests

  
In Mixed-Species Forests (2017), pp. 337-382, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-54553-9_7

Abstract

In many parts of the world, forests are likely to face novel disturbance regimes as a result of global change processes, and there is concern that the capacity of forest ecosystems to withstand, recover from, or adapt to these novel disturbance regimes may decline. Creation and maintenance of species-diverse forests is seen as an important option to adapt forests to uncertain future disturbances. However, it is not known whether benefits of mixed-species forests consist mainly of risk spreading among tree species ...

 

Influence of landscape structure on patterns of forest fires in boreal forest landscapes in Sweden

  
Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 34, No. 2. (1 February 2004), pp. 332-338, https://doi.org/10.1139/x03-175

Abstract

To analyze the effect of landscape structure (viz. amount of wetlands) on the past forest fire regime in boreal Sweden, we reconstructed detailed fire histories by cross-dating fire scars in living and dead Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in two different landscape types: mire-free landscapes with a low proportion (1%?2%) of mires and mire-rich landscapes with a high proportion (21%?33%) of mires. Two localities were selected and at each one, adjacent mire-free and mire-rich areas of 256?601 ha were sampled. Over ...

 

Southern Annular Mode drives multicentury wildfire activity in southern South America

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 36. (05 September 2017), pp. 9552-9557, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1705168114

Abstract

[Significance] Fire is a key ecological process affecting ecosystem dynamics and services, driven primarily by variations in fuel amount and condition, ignition patterns, and climate. In the Southern Hemisphere, current warming conditions are linked to the upward trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) due to ozone depletion. Here we use tree ring fire scar data obtained from diverse biomes ranging from subtropical dry woodlands to sub-Antarctic rainforests to assess the effect of the SAM on regional fire activity over the past ...

 

Emerging role of wetland methane emissions in driving 21st century climate change

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 36. (05 September 2017), pp. 9647-9652, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1618765114

Abstract

[Significance] Conventional greenhouse gas mitigation policies ignore the role of global wetlands in emitting methane (CH4) from feedbacks associated with changing climate. Here we investigate wetland feedbacks and whether, and to what degree, wetlands will exceed anthropogenic 21st century CH4 emissions using an ensemble of climate projections and a biogeochemical methane model with dynamic wetland area and permafrost. Our results reveal an emerging contribution of global wetland CH4 emissions due to processes mainly related to the sensitivity of methane emissions to temperature ...

 

New water-cooling solar panels could lower the cost of air conditioning by 20%

  

Abstract

[Excerpt] Most of us have heard of solar water heaters. Now there’s a solar water cooler, and the technology may sharply lower the cost of industrial-scale air conditioning and refrigeration. [...] Researchers at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, recently placed three water cooling panels—each 0.37 square meters—atop a building on campus and circulated water through them at a rate of 0.2 liters every minute. They report today in Nature Energy that their setup cooled the water as much as 5°C ...

 

Sub-ambient non-evaporative fluid cooling with the sky

  
Nature Energy, Vol. 2, No. 9. (4 September 2017), 17143, https://doi.org/10.1038/nenergy.2017.143

Abstract

Cooling systems consume 15% of electricity generated globally and account for 10% of global greenhouse gas emissions. With demand for cooling expected to grow tenfold by 2050, improving the efficiency of cooling systems is a critical part of the twenty-first-century energy challenge. Building upon recent demonstrations of daytime radiative sky cooling, here we demonstrate fluid cooling panels that harness radiative sky cooling to cool fluids below the air temperature with zero evaporative losses, and use almost no electricity. Over three days ...

 

Cheap plastic film cools whatever it touches up to 10°C

  
Science (March 2017), 2354204, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal0732

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] During the day most materials [...] absorb visible and near-infrared (IR) light from the sun. That added energy excites molecules, which warm up and, over time, emit the energy back out as photons with longer wavelengths, typically in the midrange of the infrared spectrum. That helps the materials cool back down, particularly at night when they are no longer absorbing visible light but are still radiating IR photons. [\n] In recent years, researchers have tried to goose this “passive cooling” ...

 

Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling

  
Science, Vol. 355, No. 6329. (10 March 2017), pp. 1062-1066, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aai7899

Abstract

[The lazy way to keep cool in the sun] Passive radiative cooling requires a material that radiates heat away while allowing solar radiation to pass through. Zhai et al. solve this riddle by constructing a metamaterial composed of a polymer layer embedded with microspheres, backed with a thin layer of silver (see the Perspective by Zhang). The result is an easy-to-manufacture material near the theoretical limit for daytime radiative cooling. The translucent and flexible film can be made in large quantities for ...

 

Using n-dimensional hypervolumes for species distribution modelling: a response to Qiao et al.

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 26, No. 9. (September 2017), pp. 1071-1075, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12611

Abstract

Hypervolume approaches are used to quantify functional diversity and quantify environmental niches for species distribution modelling. Recently, Qiao et al. ([1]) criticized our geometrical kernel density estimation (KDE) method for measuring hypervolumes. They used a simulation analysis to argue that the method yields high error rates and makes biased estimates of fundamental niches. Here, we show that (a) KDE output depends in useful ways on dataset size and bias, (b) other species distribution modelling methods make equally stringent but different assumptions ...

 

How disturbance, competition and dispersal interact to prevent tree range boundaries from keeping pace with climate change

  
Global Change Biology (28 July 2017), https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13847

Abstract

Climate change is expected to cause geographic shifts in tree species’ ranges, but such shifts may not keep pace with climate changes because seed dispersal distances are often limited and competition-induced changes in community composition can be relatively slow. Disturbances may speed changes in community composition, but the interactions among climate change, disturbance and competitive interactions to produce range shifts are poorly understood. We used a physiologically-based mechanistic landscape model to study these interactions in the northeastern United States. We designed ...

 

Scientific opinion on the pest categorisation of Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 12, No. 10. (1 October 2014), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3859

Abstract

The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to perform a pest categorisation of Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr, the fungal pathogen responsible for chestnut blight, a highly destructive disease that kills trees through bark cankers. The pathogen is listed in Annex IIAII of Directive 2000/29/EC. Its identity is clearly defined as C.parasitica (Murrill) Barr and methods exist for its discriminative detection. Several hosts are known, but the main hosts are species of Castanea and Quercus, particularly C.sativa and Q.petraea. ...

References


  1. Adamcikova, K., Kobza, M., Juhasova, G., 2010. Characteristics of the Cryphonectria parasitica isolated from Quercus in Slovakia. Forest Pathology 40, 443–449.
  2. Adamcikova, K., Juhasova, G., Kobza, M., Ondruskova, E., 2013. Diversity of microfungi on branches of Castanea sativa in Slovakia. Polish Botanical Journal 58, 741–746.
  3. Aguín Casal, O., Montenegro Gregorio, D., Pérez Otero, R., Mansilla Vázquez, J.P., 2005. VI Congreso Forestal Español, Zaragoza 2005. Available online: http://www.efadip.org/es/publicaciones/Comunicaciones/2005/Cryphonectria%20parasitica(zaragoza).htm .
 

Nitrogen-fixing trees inhibit growth of regenerating Costa Rican rainforests

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 33. (15 August 2017), pp. 8817-8822, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1707094114

Abstract

[Significance] Regrowing tropical forests are critical for global biodiversity conservation and carbon capture. Nitrogen availability often controls how fast these forests can regrow. Because nitrogen-fixing plants are the primary source of new nitrogen into these forests, one might expect that more nitrogen fixers lead to faster forest regrowth. However, here we show that nitrogen fixers actually slow forest regrowth. Their competitive influence on neighboring trees outweighs any growth enhancement from their nitrogen inputs at this site. Our results call for a more ...

 

Legal threat exposes gaps in climate-change planning

  
Nature, Vol. 548, No. 7669. (29 August 2017), pp. 508-509, https://doi.org/10.1038/548508a

Abstract

Australian lawsuit highlights how difficult it is to turn global warming data into useful advice. [Excerpt] [...] Climate scientist Andy Pitman at the Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science in Sydney, Australia, says that researchers have been warning companies and governments for years about the need to invest in climate modelling and the related field of climate services, which provides forecasts and other information to public and private users. [...] To be useful, he says, the forecasts would need to be ...

 

Maryam Mirzakhani (1977–2017)

  
Science, Vol. 357, No. 6353. (25 August 2017), pp. 758-758, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aao6074

Abstract

On 14 July, Maryam Mirzakhani, a luminary in pure mathematics, died of cancer at the age of 40. Her achievements had been most recently honored in 2014 by the Fields Medal, the most prestigious award in mathematics. [Excerpt] [...] There are many possible uniformly curved shapes into which the surface can be bent. These shapes are called hyperbolic metrics and exhibit the non-Euclidean geometry discovered in the 1800s after 2000 years of attempts to prove its nonexistence. The plethora of all possible ...

 

A human-driven decline in global burned area

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6345. (30 June 2017), pp. 1356-1362, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal4108

Abstract

[Burn less, baby, burn less] Humans have, and always have had, a major impact on wildfire activity, which is expected to increase in our warming world. Andela et al. use satellite data to show that, unexpectedly, global burned area declined by ∼25% over the past 18 years, despite the influence of climate. The decrease has been largest in savannas and grasslands because of agricultural expansion and intensification. The decline of burned area has consequences for predictions of future changes to the atmosphere, ...

 

Forest fires are changing: let’s change the fire management strategy

  
Forest@ - Rivista di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale, Vol. 14, No. 4. (31 August 2017), pp. 202-205, https://doi.org/10.3832/efor2537-014

Abstract

Forest fires in Italy are changing. More frequent heatwaves and drought increase the flammability of the vegetation; the abandonment of rural land produces 30.000 ha of newly afforested areas each year; and the wildland-urban interface is expanding with the sprawl of urbanized areas. However, forest fires are rarely understood and managed in their complexity. The public opinion is often misinformed on the causes and consequences of fires in the forest. Moreover, fire management relies almost exclusively on extinction and emergency response, ...

 

Fears rise for US climate report as Trump officials take reins

  
Nature, Vol. 548, No. 7665. (1 August 2017), pp. 15-16, https://doi.org/10.1038/548015a

Abstract

Officials at the US Environmental Protection Agency are consulting global-warming sceptics as they weigh up a technical review. ...

 

The impact of hunting on tropical mammal and bird populations

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6334. (14 April 2017), pp. 180-183, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaj1891

Abstract

[Quantifying hunting-induced defaunation] As the human population grows and increasingly encroaches on remaining wildlife habitat, hunting threatens many species. Benítez-López et al. conducted a large-scale meta-analysis of hunting trends and impacts across the tropics (see the Perspective by Brashares and Gaynor). Bird and mammal populations were considerably lower in areas where hunting occurred. Although commercial hunting and proximity to roads and urban centers were the most damaging factors, all hunting had worrying impacts, even in protected areas. Protection and alternative approaches for ...

 

Bushmeat hunting and extinction risk to the world's mammals

  
Royal Society Open Science, Vol. 3, No. 10. (01 October 2016), 160498, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.160498

Abstract

Terrestrial mammals are experiencing a massive collapse in their population sizes and geographical ranges around the world, but many of the drivers, patterns and consequences of this decline remain poorly understood. Here we provide an analysis showing that bushmeat hunting for mostly food and medicinal products is driving a global crisis whereby 301 terrestrial mammal species are threatened with extinction. Nearly all of these threatened species occur in developing countries where major coexisting threats include deforestation, agricultural expansion, human encroachment and ...

 

Reducing meat consumption in developed and transition countries to counter climate change and biodiversity loss: a review of influence factors

  
Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 17, No. 5. (2017), pp. 1261-1277, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-016-1057-5

Abstract

A dietary shift towards reduced meat consumption is an efficient strategy for countering biodiversity loss and climate change in regions (developed and transition countries) where consumption is already at a very high level or is rapidly expanding (such as China). Biodiversity is being degraded and lost to a considerable extent, with 70 % of the world’s deforestation a result of stripping in order to grow animal feed. Furthermore, about 14.5 % of the world’s anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are calculated ...

 

Biodiversity conservation: the key is reducing meat consumption

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 536 (December 2015), pp. 419-431, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.022

Abstract

The consumption of animal-sourced food products by humans is one of the most powerful negative forces affecting the conservation of terrestrial ecosystems and biological diversity. Livestock production is the single largest driver of habitat loss, and both livestock and feedstock production are increasing in developing tropical countries where the majority of biological diversity resides. Bushmeat consumption in Africa and southeastern Asia, as well as the high growth-rate of per capita livestock consumption in China are of special concern. The projected land ...

 

Less than 2 °C warming by 2100 unlikely

  
Nature Climate Change (31 July 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3352

Abstract

The recently published Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections to 2100 give likely ranges of global temperature increase in four scenarios for population, economic growth and carbon use1. However, these projections are not based on a fully statistical approach. Here we use a country-specific version of Kaya’s identity to develop a statistically based probabilistic forecast of CO2 emissions and temperature change to 2100. Using data for 1960–2010, including the UN’s probabilistic population projections for all countries2, 3, 4, we develop ...

 

Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought?

  
New Phytologist, Vol. 178, No. 4. (1 June 2008), pp. 719-739, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02436.x

Abstract

Severe droughts have been associated with regional-scale forest mortality worldwide. Climate change is expected to exacerbate regional mortality events; however, prediction remains difficult because the physiological mechanisms underlying drought survival and mortality are poorly understood. We developed a hydraulically based theory considering carbon balance and insect resistance that allowed development and examination of hypotheses regarding survival and mortality. Multiple mechanisms may cause mortality during drought. A common mechanism for plants with isohydric regulation of water status results from avoidance of drought-induced ...

 

Oak decline as illustrated through plant–climate interactions near the northern edge of species range

  
The Botanical Review, Vol. 82, No. 1. (2016), pp. 1-23, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12229-016-9160-3

Abstract

This paper investigates historical growth and climate records among the oak sites representing the northern edge of species range in northernmost Europe (Finland). This is to characterize plant–climate interactions for a multitude of sites where oak decline has recently been observed and understand this most recent decline in the context of the past decline studies elsewhere. Further, our paper demonstrates the procedures the tree-ring data can be used in isolating those factors significantly contributing to decline. Our findings point towards complex ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
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