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Assessing and managing the current and future pest risk from water hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes), an invasive aquatic plant threatening the environment and water security

PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 8. (11 August 2016), e0120054, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120054


Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world’s worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. ...


Planting sentinel European trees in Eastern Asia as a novel method to identify potential insect pest invaders

PLoS ONE, Vol. 10, No. 5. (20 May 2015), e0120864, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120864


Quarantine measures to prevent insect invasions tend to focus on well-known pests but a large proportion of the recent invaders were not known to cause significant damage in their native range, or were not even known to science before their introduction. A novel method is proposed to detect new potential pests of woody plants in their region of origin before they are introduced to a new continent. Since Asia is currently considered to be the main supplier of insect invaders to ...


Citizen science and early detection of invasive species: phenology of first occurrences of Halyomorpha halys in Southern Europe

Biological Invasions (2016), pp. 1-8, doi:10.1007/s10530-016-1217-z


Early detection of invasive alien species and the ability to track their spread are critical for undertaking appropriate management decisions. Citizen science surveys are potentially valuable tools for quickly obtaining information on biodiversity and species distributions. The Asian brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is an invasive pest of agricultural crops and a dwelling nuisance. Halyomorpha halys was first recorded in Italy in 2012 in Emilia Romagna, one of the most important fruit producing regions of Europe. To rapidly obtain data ...


Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation

Nature Communications, Vol. 7 (23 August 2016), 12558, doi:10.1038/ncomms12558


Human pressures on the environment are changing spatially and temporally, with profound implications for the planet’s biodiversity and human economies. Here we use recently available data on infrastructure, land cover and human access into natural areas to construct a globally standardized measure of the cumulative human footprint on the terrestrial environment at 1 km2 resolution from 1993 to 2009. We note that while the human population has increased by 23% and the world economy has grown 153%, the human footprint has increased by just 9%. Still, 75% ...


The ash dieback crisis: genetic variation in resistance can prove a long-term solution

Plant Pathology, Vol. 63, No. 3. (June 2014), pp. 485-499, doi:10.1111/ppa.12196


Over the last two decades, ash dieback has become a major problem in Europe, where the causative fungus has invaded the continent rapidly. The disease is caused by the invasive pathogenic fungus Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea), which causes severe symptoms and dieback in common ash, Fraxinus excelsior. It is becoming a significant threat to biodiversity in forest ecosystems and the economic and aesthetic impacts are immense. Despite the presence of the disease for at least 10 years in Scandinavia, a ...


Opinion: science in the age of selfies

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 34. (23 August 2016), pp. 9384-9387, doi:10.1073/pnas.1609793113


[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [\n] Here there is a paradox: Today, there are many more scientists, and much more money is spent on research, yet the pace of fundamental innovation, the kinds of theories and engineering practices that will feed the pipeline of future progress, appears, to some observers, including us, to be slowing [...]. Why might that be the case? [\n] One argument is that “theoretical models” may not even exist for some branches of science, at least not in the ...


Armed-conflict risks enhanced by climate-related disasters in ethnically fractionalized countries

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 33. (16 August 2016), pp. 9216-9221, doi:10.1073/pnas.1601611113


[Significance] Ethnic divides play a major role in many armed conflicts around the world and might serve as predetermined conflict lines following rapidly emerging societal tensions arising from disruptive events like natural disasters. We find evidence in global datasets that risk of armed-conflict outbreak is enhanced by climate-related disaster occurrence in ethnically fractionalized countries. Although we find no indications that environmental disasters directly trigger armed conflicts, our results imply that disasters might act as a threat multiplier in several of the world’s ...


Indonesian fire activity and smoke pollution in 2015 show persistent nonlinear sensitivity to El Niño-induced drought

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 33. (16 August 2016), pp. 9204-9209, doi:10.1073/pnas.1524888113


[Significance] The 2015 Indonesian fire season, in terms of fire activity and pollution, was the most severe since the NASA Earth Observing satellite system began observations in the early 2000s. Our estimates show that the 2015 CO2-equivalent biomass burning emissions for all of Indonesia were between the 2013 annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions of Japan and India. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of dry season rainfall shows ...


Define the Anthropocene in terms of the whole Earth

Nature, Vol. 536, No. 7616. (17 August 2016), pp. 251-251, doi:10.1038/536251a


Researchers must consider human impacts on entire Earth systems and not get trapped in discipline-specific definitions, says Clive Hamilton. [Excerpt] The Anthropocene was conceived by Earth-system scientists to capture the very recent rupture in Earth’s history arising from the impact of human activity on the Earth system as a whole. Read that again. Take special note of the phrases ‘very recent rupture’ and ‘the Earth system as a whole’. Understanding the Anthropocene, and what humanity now confronts, depends on a firm grasp of ...


Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA

Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 28, No. 11-12. (June 2009), pp. 1131-1146, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.05.003


The role of fire in shaping steep, forested landscapes depends on a suite of hydrologic, biologic, and geological characteristics, including the propensity for hydrophobic soil layers to promote runoff erosion during subsequent rainfall events. In the Oregon Coast Range, several studies postulate that fire primarily modulates sediment production via root reinforcement and shallow landslide susceptibility, although few studies have documented post-fire geomorphic response. Here, we describe field observations and topographic analyses for three sites in the central Oregon Coast Range that ...


Wildfire-related debris flow from a hazards perspective

In Debris-flow Hazards and Related Phenomena (2005), pp. 363-385, doi:10.1007/3-540-27129-5_15


[Excerpt: Introduction] Wildland fire can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of a watershed. Consumption of the rainfall-intercepting canopy and of the soil-mantling litter and duff, intensive drying of the soil, combustion of soil-binding organic matter, and the enhancement or formation of water-repellent soils can change the infiltration characteristics and erodibility of the soil, leading to decreased rainfall infiltration, subsequent significantly increased overland flow and runoff in channels, and movement of soil (e.g., Swanson, 1981; Spittler, 1995; Doerr et al., 2000; Martin and Moody, 2001; ...


The potential predictability of fire danger provided by numerical weather prediction

Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology (5 August 2016), doi:10.1175/jamc-d-15-0297.1


A global fire danger rating system driven by atmospheric model forcing has been developed with the aim of providing early warning information to civil protection authorities. The daily predictions of fire danger conditions are based on the US Forest Service National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS), the Canadian forest service Fire Weather Index Rating System (FWI) and the Australian McArthur (MARK-5) rating systems. Weather forcings are provided in real time by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecasting ...


Detection of Chalara fraxinea from tissue of Fraxinus excelsior using species-specific ITS primers

Forest Pathology, Vol. 40, No. 2. (April 2010), pp. 111-115, doi:10.1111/j.1439-0329.2009.00614.x


Chalara fraxinea (teleomorph: Hymenoscyphus albidus) is known as a serious pathogen of Fraxinus excelsior, causing massive dieback of trees in Europe. The fungus is able to cause latent infections, and has been previously detected as an endophyte in asymptomatic tissues. Chalara fraxinea is a slow grower in culture, and is thus likely to be overgrown by faster growing fungi whenever pure culture isolations are being attempted. This study reports species-specific ITS primers allowing fast and reliable detection of the pathogen directly ...


Why doesn't your model pass information to mine?

In Workshop on Digital Mapping Techniques 2009 (2009)


For several decades geologists have been making three-dimensional (3D) models. Various proprietary and open software tools have been developed which allow geoscientists to produce reasonable 3D representation of the geological system that they are studying. The model they produce is quite often an ‘island’ of independent information. For a long time this didn't matter as there were so few models that there were unlikely to be any adjacent models forming islands in the same sea area. However, that is changing, the ...


Thermodynamic control of anvil cloud amount

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 32. (09 August 2016), pp. 8927-8932, doi:10.1073/pnas.1601472113


[Significance] Assessing the response of clouds to global warming remains a challenge of climate science. Past research has elucidated what controls the height and temperature of high-level anvil clouds, but the factors that control their horizontal extent remained uncertain. We show that the anvil cloud amount is expected to shrink as the climate warms or when convection becomes more clustered, due to a mechanism rooted in basic energetic and thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere. It is supported by three climate models and ...


Tropical anvil clouds and climate sensitivity

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 32. (09 August 2016), pp. 8897-8899, doi:10.1073/pnas.1610455113


[Excerpt] The surface temperature of Earth is being increased by human activities, principally by the release of greenhouse gases (1). Future warming will depend upon the rate at which greenhouse gases are released and the sensitivity of Earth’s surface temperature to those increased greenhouse gases. An often used metric of the sensitivity of Earth’s climate is the equilibrium climate sensitivity, the amount of global average surface warming that is the steady, long-term response to a doubling of carbon dioxide. The equilibrium ...


Estimating watershed degradation over the last century and its impact on water-treatment costs for the world’s large cities

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 32. (09 August 2016), pp. 9117-9122, doi:10.1073/pnas.1605354113


[Significance] Urban water-treatment costs depend on the water quality at the city’s source, which in turn depends on the land use in the source watersheds. Here, we show that globally urban source watershed degradation is widespread, with 9 in 10 cities losing significant amounts of natural land cover in their source watersheds to agriculture and development. This watershed degradation has impacted the cost of water treatment for about one in three large cities globally, increasing those costs by about half. This increase ...


Wave climate in the Arctic 1992–2014: seasonality and trends

The Cryosphere, Vol. 10, No. 4. (26 July 2016), pp. 1605-1629, doi:10.5194/tc-10-1605-2016


Over the past decade, the diminishing Arctic sea ice has impacted the wave field, which depends on the ice-free ocean and wind. This study characterizes the wave climate in the Arctic spanning 1992–2014 from a merged altimeter data set and a wave hindcast that uses CFSR winds and ice concentrations from satellites as input. The model performs well, verified by the altimeters, and is relatively consistent for climate studies. The wave seasonality and extremes are linked to the ice coverage, wind ...


They write the right stuff

Fast Company, Vol. 6 (December 1996), 28121


[Excerpt] As the 120-ton space shuttle sits surrounded by almost 4 million pounds of rocket fuel, exhaling noxious fumes, visibly impatient to defy gravity, its on-board computers take command. Four identical machines, running identical software, pull information from thousands of sensors, make hundreds of milli-second decisions, vote on every decision, check with each other 250 times a second. A fifth computer, with different software, stands by to take control should the other four malfunction. [\n] At T-minus 6.6 seconds, if the pressures, pumps, and temperatures are nominal, ...


Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 31. (02 August 2016), pp. 8664-8668, doi:10.1073/pnas.1608207113


[Significance] This study is the first, to our knowledge, to show that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) reliably predicts achievement across a national sample of students, including virtually all of the schools and socioeconomic strata in Chile. It also explores the relationship between income and mindset for the first time, to our knowledge, finding that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers but that ...


Uncalculating cooperation is used to signal trustworthiness

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 31. (02 August 2016), pp. 8658-8663, doi:10.1073/pnas.1601280113


[Significance] Human prosociality presents an evolutionary puzzle, and reciprocity has emerged as a dominant explanation: cooperating today can bring benefits tomorrow. Reciprocity theories clearly predict that people should only cooperate when the benefits outweigh the costs, and thus that the decision to cooperate should always depend on a cost–benefit analysis. Yet human cooperation can be very uncalculating: good friends grant favors without asking questions, romantic love “blinds” us to the costs of devotion, and ethical principles make universal moral prescriptions. Here, we ...


Does it take prices to make volumes move? A comparison of timber market functioning in Finland and Lithuania

Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 31, No. 4. (18 May 2016), pp. 428-433, doi:10.1080/02827581.2016.1158309


Forest ownership structure is known to have implications for forest management and the production of forest products and services. The ownership structure, as well as the degree of state regulation of forestry, could thus be expected to affect the functioning of timber markets. Hence, in the presence of strict prescriptions for forest management, the self-regulating mechanisms of timber markets – governed by the economic principle of supply and demand – could be inhibited. Using Finland and Lithuania as contrasting cases, we ...


Basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichens

Science, Vol. 353, No. 6298. (21 July 2016), pp. 488-492, doi:10.1126/science.aaf8287


For over 140 years, lichens have been regarded as a symbiosis between a single fungus, usually an ascomycete, and a photosynthesizing partner. Other fungi have long been known to occur as occasional parasites or endophytes, but the one lichen–one fungus paradigm has seldom been questioned. Here we show that many common lichens are composed of the known ascomycete, the photosynthesizing partner, and, unexpectedly, specific basidiomycete yeasts. These yeasts are embedded in the cortex, and their abundance correlates with previously unexplained variations ...


Bistability, spatial interaction, and the distribution of tropical forests and savannas

Ecosystems (2016), pp. 1-12, doi:10.1007/s10021-016-0011-1


Recent work has indicated that tropical forest and savanna can be alternative stable states under a range of climatic conditions. However, dynamical systems theory suggests that in case of strong spatial interactions between patches of forest and savanna, a boundary between both states is only possible at conditions in which forest and savanna are equally stable, called the ‘Maxwell point.’ Frequency distributions of MODIS tree-cover data at 250 m resolution were used to estimate such Maxwell points with respect to the ...


MSWEP: 3-hourly 0.25° global gridded precipitation (1979–2015) by merging gauge, satellite, and reanalysis data

Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions (30 May 2016), pp. 1-38, doi:10.5194/hess-2016-236


Current global precipitation (P) datasets do not take full advantage of the complementary nature of satellite and reanalysis data. Here, we present Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP), a global P dataset for the period 1979–2015 with a 3-hourly temporal and 0.25° spatial resolution, specifically designed for hydrological modeling. The design philosophy of MSWEP was to optimally merge the highest quality P data sources available as a function of time scale and location. The long-term mean of MSWEP was based on the CHPclim ...


From local scenarios to national maps: a participatory framework for envisioning the future of Tanzania

Ecology and Society, Vol. 21, No. 3. (2016), doi:10.5751/es-08565-210304


Tackling societal and environmental challenges requires new approaches that connect top-down global oversight with bottom-up subnational knowledge. We present a novel framework for participatory development of spatially explicit scenarios at national scale that model socioeconomic and environmental dynamics by reconciling local stakeholder perspectives and national spatial data. We illustrate results generated by this approach and evaluate its potential to contribute to a greater understanding of the relationship between development pathways and sustainability. Using the lens of land use and land cover ...


From dwindling ice to headwater lakes: could dams replace glaciers in the European Alps?

Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 11, No. 5. (01 May 2016), 054022, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/5/054022


The potential exploitation of areas becoming ice-free in response to ongoing climate change has rarely been addressed, although it could be of interest from the water management perspective. Here we present an estimate for the potential of mitigating projected changes in seasonal water availability from melting glaciers by managing runoff through reservoirs. For the European Alps we estimate that by the end of the century, such a strategy could offset up to 65% of the expected summer-runoff changes from presently glacierized ...


The introduction of lodgepole pine for wood production in Sweden - a review

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 141, No. 1-2. (February 2001), pp. 15-29, doi:10.1016/s0378-1127(00)00485-0


The species-specific properties and the environmental requirements of lodgepole pine (LP) in both its native environment and as an exotic are reviewed in order to describe the large-scale introduction of this tree to Sweden, where the planted area has reached about 600,000 ha during a 25-year period. LP is estimated to produce 36% more wood than Scots pine (SP) and survives better in the young stages, but is less stable against wind and snow load after being planted. Other species differences ...


Introduction of lodgepole pine in Sweden - ecological relevance for vertebrates

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 141, No. 1-2. (February 2001), pp. 143-153, doi:10.1016/s0378-1127(00)00497-7


Several factors like vegetation structure, quality of food and protection from predators influence habitat utilisation by vertebrates. When an exotic tree species is introduced it has the potential to affect vertebrates in a number of ways. In the boreal region of Sweden (where Scots pine (P. sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) are the dominant native conifers), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was introduced on a large scale about 40 years ago. [\n] Our review of current knowledge on the lodgepole pine suggests ...


The introduction of lodgepole pine as a major forest crop in Sweden: implications for host-pathogen evolution

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 141, No. 1-2. (February 2001), pp. 85-96, doi:10.1016/s0378-1127(00)00491-6


Theoretical and experimental investigations of natural selection in host–pathogen systems are reviewed and the general principles emerging from these studies are used to analyse the possible pathogenic consequences of introducing lodgepole pine into Sweden. Introduction of lodgepole pine alone is likely to pose a relatively low disease risk for native forests. The possible evolution of more aggressive populations of native Scots pine pathogens on highly stressed lodgepole pine plantations is, nevertheless, of some concern. These pathogens could, subsequently, transfer back on ...


Insects on lodgepole pine in Sweden - current knowledge and potential risks

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 141, No. 1-2. (February 2001), pp. 107-116, doi:10.1016/s0378-1127(00)00494-1


Eighty species of forest insects have thus far been recorded feeding on lodgepole pine in the Nordic countries (61 in Sweden). The list includes species that have Scots pine as their main host and which feed on needles, flowers, cones, and shoots, as well as species boring in the phloem and xylem of dead or dying Norway spruce. Contrary to our expectations, most of the insect species that have colonised lodgepole pine in Sweden can be considered specialists (with regard to ...


A landscape perspective on the establishment of exotic tree plantations: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in Sweden

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 141, No. 1-2. (February 2001), pp. 131-142, doi:10.1016/s0378-1127(00)00496-5


This paper reviews some of the potential effects of plantations of the North American lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) on landscapes in Sweden dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and, after major disturbances, by several deciduous trees (Betula pendula, B. pubescens and, less commonly, Populus tremula). Also, we determine the proportions of a specific landscape in Sweden that are at varying distances from lodgepole pine and the degree to which landscape fragmentation may be increased by lodgepole pine ...


Atlas of United States trees, volume 4, minor Eastern hardwoods



Maps of the ranges of tree species in North America compiled by Elbert Little, of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, and others (see references below) were digitized for use in USGS' vegetation-climate modeling studies. These digital map files are available here for download. Updated versions of some of these maps are also available from the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory Analysis program. The maps are available in ArcView® shapefile format. Geographic ranges are represented as polygons. There is one shapefile ...


Atlas of United States trees, volume 3, minor Western hardwoods



Maps of the ranges of tree species in North America compiled by Elbert Little, of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, and others (see references below) were digitized for use in USGS' vegetation-climate modeling studies. These digital map files are available here for download. Updated versions of some of these maps are also available from the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory Analysis program. The maps are available in ArcView® shapefile format. Geographic ranges are represented as polygons. There is one shapefile ...


Flora of North America North of Mexico

Vol. 1-28 (1993+)


Flora of North America builds upon the cumulative wealth of information acquired since botanical studies began in the United States and Canada more than two centuries ago. Recent research has been integrated with historical studies, so that the Flora of North America is a single-source synthesis of North American floristics. FNA has the full support of scientific botanical societies and is the botanical community's vehicle for synthesizing and presenting this information. The Flora of North America Project will treat more than 20,000 ...


The woody plants of Korea



[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [\n] Korean Woody flora was written to familiarize naturalists, forestry professionals, students, and amateurs with the trees of Korea. This eflora is produced to meet a growing demand for information on the identification and characteristics of Korean trees in the light of new knowledge and updated information. This flora is based on the broader sense. [\n] In this eflora photographs, maps, literatures, and many drawings are provided, and features useful for identification of the tree species are emphasized. We were ...


Structure of Alnus fruticosa Rupr. s. l. and its relationships with other taxa of subgenus Alnobetula (Ehrhart) Peterman

Contemporary Problems of Ecology In Contemporary Problems of Ecology, Vol. 2, No. 6. (1 December 2009), pp. 601-610, doi:10.1134/s1995425509060186


The reliability of morphological parameters of Alnus fruticosa s. l. on the territory of Asian Russia was studied. It has been revealed that the species has a complex internal structure stipulated by the climatic and forest-growing conditions in different parts of the range. The results of phenotypic variability and sequences of internal transcribed spacer ITS1 of nuclear ribosomal DNA of the taxa of the subgenus Alnobetula indicate the species rank of Alnus viridis and subspecies rank of A. fruticosa, A. sinuata, ...


World drought frequency, duration, and severity for 1951-2010

International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 34, No. 8. (June 2014), pp. 2792-2804, doi:10.1002/joc.3875


In the context of climate change characterized by rising temperature and more extreme precipitation regimes, drought is one of the most relevant natural disasters. This paper presents maps of global drought frequency, duration, and severity for the periods 1951–1970, 1971–1990, and 1991–2010, to give an overview of the respective drought hot spots. Drought frequency is defined as the number of drought events occurred, drought duration as the number of months in drought conditions, and drought severity as the sum of the ...


Can Apulia's olive trees be saved?

Science, Vol. 353, No. 6297. (2016), pp. 346-348, doi:10.1126/science.aaf9710


On 21 October 2013, the Italian phytosanitary service notified the European Commission (EC) that the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa had been detected in olive trees near Gallipoli, a tourist destination in Italy's southern region of Apulia (1). This xylem-limited bacterium is spread by insect vectors and causes disease in crops such as grapevines, citrus, coffee, and almond; various ornamentals; and trees such as oaks, elms, and sycamores. Because of the risks of X. fastidiosa being introduced, established, and spread throughout Europe, ...


Vegetation-environment relationships in the alderwood communities of Caspian lowlands, N. Iran (toward an ecological classification)

Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, Vol. 203, No. 7. (October 2008), pp. 567-577, doi:10.1016/j.flora.2007.09.007


Hyrcanian (Caspian) lowland forests (northern Iran) include alderwood communities, dominated by Alnus glutinosa ssp. barbata. A data set of these alderwoods, including floristic relevés and environmental variables (groundwater level, soil physical and chemical properties from two depths) was analyzed in order to describe the relationships between floristic composition and environmental variables. Classification of relevés using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) and a clustering technique displayed five clear vegetation groups of A. glutinosa ssp. barbata, each with specific indicator species. Principal component ...


Regional estimation of woodland moisture content by inverting Radiative Transfer Models

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 132 (May 2013), pp. 59-70, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2013.01.004


[Abstract] We inverted the PROSPECT and GEOSAIL Radiative Transfer Models (RTM) using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to retrieve Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC) in woodlands located in the peninsular territory of Spain. Ecological rules were used to parameterize the RTM. This approach reduces the probability of an ill-posed problem in the inversion of the selected RTMs, by rejecting unrealistic combinations of input parameters. Three species representatives of each region were used to derive the ecological rules: Quercus ilex L., Quercus ...


Linking ecological information and radiative transfer models to estimate fuel moisture content in the Mediterranean region of Spain: solving the ill-posed inverse problem

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 113, No. 11. (16 November 2009), pp. 2403-2411, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2009.07.001


Live fuel moisture content (FMC) is a key factor required to evaluate fire risk and its operative and accurate estimation is essential for allocating pre-fire resources as a part of fire prevention. This paper presents an operative and accurate procedure to estimate FMC though MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) data and simulation models. The new aspects of the method are its consideration of several ecological criteria to parameterize the models and consistently avoid simulating unrealistic spectra which might produce indetermination (ill-posed) ...


Estimation of live fuel moisture content from MODIS images for fire risk assessment

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 148, No. 4. (April 2008), pp. 523-536, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.12.005


This paper presents a method to estimate fuel moisture content (FMC) of Mediterranean vegetation species from satellite images in the context of fire risk assessment. The relationship between satellite images and field collected FMC data was based on two methodologies: empirical relations and statistical models based on simulated reflectances derived from radiative transfer models (RTM). Both models were applied to the same validation data set to compare their performance. FMC of grassland and shrublands were estimated using a 5-year time series ...


Evaluation of optical remote sensing to estimate actual evapotranspiration and canopy conductance

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 129 (February 2013), pp. 250-261, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2012.11.004


[Abstract] We compared estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ET) produced with six different vegetation measures derived from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and three contrasting estimation approaches using measurements from eddy covariance flux towers at 16 FLUXNET sites located over six different land cover types. The aim was to assess optimal approaches in using optical remote sensing to estimate ET. The first two approaches directly regressed various MODIS vegetation indices (VIs) and products such as leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of ...


Evaluation of Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow albedo product (MCD43A) over tundra

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 117 (February 2012), pp. 264-280, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2011.10.002
Keywords: albedo   mcd43   mcd43a   modis   snow   tundra  


[Abstract] This study assesses the MODIS standard Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/Albedo product, and the daily Direct Broadcast BRDF/Albedo algorithm at tundra locations under large solar zenith angles and high anisotropic diffuse illumination and multiple scattering conditions. These products generally agree with ground-based albedo measurements during the snow cover period when the Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) is less than 70°. An integrated validation strategy, including analysis of the representativeness of the surface heterogeneity, is performed to decide whether direct comparisons between field ...


Intercomparison of MODIS albedo retrievals and in situ measurements across the global FLUXNET network

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 121 (June 2012), pp. 323-334, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2012.02.019


[Abstract] Surface albedo is a key parameter in the Earth's energy balance since it affects the amount of solar radiation directly absorbed at the planet surface. Its variability in time and space can be globally retrieved through the use of remote sensing products. To evaluate and improve the quality of satellite retrievals, careful intercomparisons with in situ measurements of surface albedo are crucial. For this purpose we compared MODIS albedo retrievals with surface measurements taken at 53 FLUXNET sites that met strict ...


Re-evaluation of MODIS MCD43 Greenland albedo accuracy and trends

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 138 (November 2013), pp. 199-214, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2013.07.023
Keywords: accuracy   albedo   greenland   mcd43   modis   remote-sensing  


[Highlights] [::] The MODIS 16-day snow albedo product is in general agreement with Greenland in situ data. [::] Analysis from 2000 to 2012 reveals negative trends leading to enhanced absorption of solar energy. [::] In 2012, albedo anomalies were more than two standard deviations below the 2000–2009 mean. [Abstract] In this study, the accuracy of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) combined Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) 16-day albedo product (MCD43) is evaluated through comparisons with eleven years of in situ measurements at 17 automatic weather ...


Evaluation of MODIS albedo product (MCD43A) over grassland, agriculture and forest surface types during dormant and snow-covered periods

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 140 (January 2014), pp. 60-77, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2013.08.025


[Highlights] [::] We evaluated the MCD43A Albedo during dormant and snow covered period. [::] Spatial representativeness analysis is necessary for the albedo evaluation. [::] MODIS albedo performs well during vegetation dormancy and snow cover. [Abstract] This study assesses the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF/albedo 8 day standard product and products from the daily Direct Broadcast BRDF/albedo algorithm, and shows that these products agree well with ground-based albedo measurements during the more difficult periods of vegetation dormancy and snow cover. Cropland, grassland, deciduous and coniferous forests are ...


Standards for reporting qualitative research

Academic Medicine, Vol. 89, No. 9. (September 2014), pp. 1245-1251, doi:10.1097/acm.0000000000000388


[Purpose] Standards for reporting exist for many types of quantitative research, but currently none exist for the broad spectrum of qualitative research. The purpose of the present study was to formulate and define standards for reporting qualitative research while preserving the requisite flexibility to accommodate various paradigms, approaches, and methods. [Method] The authors identified guidelines, reporting standards, and critical appraisal criteria for qualitative research by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and Google through July 2013; reviewing the reference lists of retrieved sources; ...


Has land use pushed terrestrial biodiversity beyond the planetary boundary? A global assessment

Science, Vol. 353, No. 6296. (14 July 2016), pp. 288-291, doi:10.1126/science.aaf2201


[Crossing “safe” limits for biodiversity loss] The planetary boundaries framework attempts to set limits for biodiversity loss within which ecological function is relatively unaffected. Newbold et al. present a quantitative global analysis of the extent to which the proposed planetary boundary has been crossed (see the Perspective by Oliver). Using over 2 million records for nearly 40,000 terrestrial species, they modeled the response of biodiversity to land use and related pressures and then estimated, at a spatial resolution of ∼1 km2, the ...

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