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Selection: library 5494 articles 

 

The maximum climate ambition needs a firm research backing

  
Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7622. (28 September 2016), pp. 585-586, doi:10.1038/537585b

Abstract

We need to know what the 1.5 °C warming target will involve — even if we don’t reach it. [Excerpt] [...] The 2015 Paris climate agreement commits governments to keeping average global surface temperatures to between 1.5 °C and 2 °C above the preindustrial level. But warming has already passed the 1-degree mark, and some estimates suggest that even if current commitments are fully implemented, they would allow temperatures to rise nearly 3 °C. If the 2-degree goal seems implausible, given current politics, 1.5 °C is ...

 

Water use in neighbouring stands of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.)

  
Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 56, No. 2. (1999), pp. 107-120, doi:10.1051/forest:19990203

Abstract

In neighbouring stands of beech and black alder in northern Germany, transpiration, soil evaporation and interception evaporation were estimated for four meteorologically different years. By means of standard weather data a two-layer evaporation model of the Shuttleworth-Wallace type was applied. In the 105-year-old beech forest (tree height 29 m, maximum leaf area index 4.5), annual transpiration (Tr) varied between 326 and 421 mm (mean 389 mm or 50 % of gross precipitation, PG) and annual evapotranspiration (ET) between 567 and 665 ...

 

Landscape genomics and a common garden trial reveal adaptive differentiation to temperature across Europe in the tree species Alnus glutinosa

  
Molecular Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 19. (1 October 2014), pp. 4709-4721, doi:10.1111/mec.12813

Abstract

The adaptive potential of tree species to cope with climate change has important ecological and economic implications. Many temperate tree species experience a wide range of environmental conditions, suggesting high adaptability to new environmental conditions. We investigated adaptation to regional climate in the drought-sensitive tree species Alnus glutinosa (Black alder), using a complementary approach that integrates genomic, phenotypic and landscape data. A total of 24 European populations were studied in a common garden and through landscape genomic approaches. Genotyping-by-sequencing was used ...

 

Identifying refugia from climate change using coupled ecological and genetic data in a transitional Mediterranean-temperate tree species

  
Molecular Ecology, Vol. 22, No. 8. (April 2013), pp. 2128-2142, doi:10.1111/mec.12252

Abstract

Populations occurring in areas of overlap between the current and future distribution of a species are particularly important because they can represent “refugia from climate change”. We coupled ecological and range-wide genetic variation data to detect such areas and to evaluate the impacts of habitat suitability changes on the genetic diversity of the transitional Mediterranean-temperate tree Fraxinus angustifolia. We sampled and genotyped 38 natural populations comprising 1006 individuals from across Europe. We found the highest genetic diversity in western and northern ...

 

How to review a paper

  
Science (22 September 2016), doi:10.1126/science.caredit.a1600134

Abstract

[Excerpt] As junior scientists develop their expertise and make names for themselves, they are increasingly likely to receive invitations to review research manuscripts. It’s an important skill and service to the scientific community, but the learning curve can be particularly steep. Writing a good review requires expertise in the field, an intimate knowledge of research methods, a critical mind, the ability to give fair and constructive feedback, and sensitivity to the feelings of authors on the receiving end. As a range ...

 

Web distributed computing for evolutionary training of artificial neural networks

  
In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technologies (InfoTech-2016) (September 2016), pp. 210-216

Abstract

Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are widely used in artificial neural networks training. EAs are computationally interesting because it is possible ot separate the problem solving in smaller pieces and to calculate these smaller pieces on different machines (distributed computing). Distributed computing platforms are well established and the most popular is BOINC, created in Berkeley. The problem in distributed computing platforms is the heterogeneity of the computational environment. The best way for solving heterogeneity is by using well established technology such as AJAX. ...

References

  1. McCulloch, W., Pitts, W., 1943. A Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity, Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 5 (4): 115–133. doi: 10.1007/BF02478259 .
  2. Zissis, D., 2015. A cloud based architecture capable of perceiving and predicting multiple vessel behaviour, Applied Soft Computing 35.
  3. Forrest, M. D., 2015. Simulation of alcohol action upon a detailed Purkinje neuron model and a simpler surrogate model that runs >400 times faster, BMC Neuroscience 16, 27.
 

Live fuel moisture content and ignition probability in the Iberian Peninsular territory of Spain

  
GeoFocus, Vol. 13, No. 2. (2013), pp. 25-40

Abstract

This paper presents an operational algorithm to produce Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC) at national scale from MODIS data. The algorithm is based on the inversion of Radiative Transfer Models (RTM) that estimate moisture content based on different simulation scenarios. In addition, logistic regression models were calibrated to convert the derived LFMC values into Ignition Probability (IP) maps. The areas under the curve obtained by the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) plot method provided by the models were close to 0.6. Several ...

 

Remotely sensed Live Fuel Moisture retrieval using Radiative Transfer Models

  
(2012)

Abstract

La presente tesis doctoral ha tenido como objetivo principal el estimar el contenido de humedad de la vegetación viva (LFMC) en el contexto de la evaluación del riesgo de incendio. El área de estudio ha sido la comprendida por la región Mediterránea y Eurosiberiana, ambas localizadas en el territorio peninsular español. La teledetección espacial es una herramienta útil y prometedora para estimar parámetros biofísicos. Por lo tanto, las imágenes de satélite procedentes del programa MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) a 500m ...

 

A multi-criteria optimisation of scenarios for the protection of water resources in Europe: support to the EU blueprint to safeguard Europe's waters

  
Vol. 25552 (2012), doi:10.2788/55540

Abstract

A modelling environment has been developed to assess optimum combinations of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient reduction measures for continental Europe. This modelling environment consists of linking the agricultural CAPRI model, the LUMP land use model, the LISFLOOD water quantity model, the EPIC water quality model, the LISQUAL combined water quantity, quality and hydro-economic model, and a multi-criteria optimisation routine. Simulations have been carried out to assess the effects of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient ...

 

Global trends in satellite-based emergency mapping

  
Science, Vol. 353, No. 6296. (14 July 2016), pp. 247-252, doi:10.1126/science.aad8728

Abstract

Over the past 15 years, scientists and disaster responders have increasingly used satellite-based Earth observations for global rapid assessment of disaster situations. We review global trends in satellite rapid response and emergency mapping from 2000 to 2014, analyzing more than 1000 incidents in which satellite monitoring was used for assessing major disaster situations. We provide a synthesis of spatial patterns and temporal trends in global satellite emergency mapping efforts and show that satellite-based emergency mapping is most intensively deployed in Asia ...

 

Analysis of the energetic flows through the SEBAL application to the assessment of the actual evapotranspiration in a Napa Valley vineyard California (USA)

  
In Clima e agricoltura: strategie di adattamento e mitigazione, Vol. 12 (June 2009), 56

Abstract

The use of water resources is constantly growing in agriculture industry and the reduction of the this resource is due by both anthropogenic and climate factors. Under this perspective it is necessary to develop monitoring systems able to forecast the consumption of water. The knowledge of the actual water demand of a crop is therefore strategic for the rational use of resources and to improve the quality of the crop production. Recent applications of remote sensing in agriculture provide a valuable contribution to release this purpose, besides the integration of remotely sensed ...

 

Comparison between energy balance and mass balance models for actual evapotranspiration assessment

  
In Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Hydrology XI, Vol. 7472 (2009), 747212, doi:10.1117/12.830229

Abstract

The assessment of the water needs for a specific crop has a fundamental importance in the management of water resources. The application of empirical models able to retrieve estimates of the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) to assess the need for water could give a valid tool for the planning of water supply, avoiding unnecessary water losses. In this context, two independent models for estimating actual evapotranspiration were compared. The first model is based on an energy balance and uses remotely sensed data ...

 

Decreasing fires in Mediterranean Europe

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 3. (16 March 2016), e0150663, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150663

Abstract

Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the ...

 

Spatiotemporal patterns of changes in fire regime and climate: defining the pyroclimates of south-eastern France (Mediterranean Basin)

  
Climatic Change, Vol. 129, No. 1-2. (2015), pp. 239-251, doi:10.1007/s10584-015-1332-3

Abstract

The impacts of climate change on fires are expected to be highly variable spatially and temporally. In heavily anthropized landscapes, the great number of factors affecting fire regimes further limits our ability to predict future fire activity caused by climate. To address this, we develop a new framework for analysing regional changes in fire regimes from specific spatiotemporal patterns of fires and climate, so-called pyroclimates. We aim to test the trends of fire activity and climate (1973–2009) across the Mediterranean and ...

 

Novel quantitative indicators to characterize the protective effect of mountain forests against rockfall

  
Ecological Indicators, Vol. 67 (August 2016), pp. 98-107, doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.02.023

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We modelled rockfall events on 3886 different forests located in all the French Alps. [::] We proposed two indicators to assess reductions of rockfall frequency and intensity. [::] We defined one indicator to evaluate the overall rockfall protection of each forest. [::] The indicators are easily and accurately predicted with three forest characteristics. [::] This approach has direct applications in forest management and rockfall assessment. [Abstract] Natural hazards are frequent in mountain areas where they regularly cause casualties and damages to human infrastructures. Mountain forests contribute ...

 

Modelling the spatial patterns of ignition causes and fire regime features in southern France: implications for fire prevention policy

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 25, No. 7. (2016), 785, doi:10.1071/wf15205

Abstract

A good knowledge of the spatiotemporal patterns of the causes of wildfire ignition is crucial to an effective fire policy. However, little is known about the situation in south-eastern France because the fire database contains unreliable data. We used data for cases with well-established causes from 1973–2013 to determine the location of spatial hotspots, the seasonal distribution, the underlying anthropogenic and environmental drivers and the tendency of five main causes to generate large fires. Anthropogenic ignitions were predominant (88%) near human ...

 

Tree cover and seasonal precipitation drive understorey flammability in alpine mountain forests

  
Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 43, No. 9. (September 2016), pp. 1869-1880, doi:10.1111/jbi.12745

Abstract

[Aim] Little is known about the understorey flammability of European mountain forests. The aim of this study was to determine the relative effects of climate, vegetation structure and composition on the fuel-driven variation in fire spread and intensity. [Location] The western Alps. [Methods] Fire spread and intensity were simulated under constant moisture and weather conditions for a wide range of understorey fuel parameters measured in the litter, grass and shrub layers. Simulation outputs were used to compare understorey flammability between different forest ecosystem types (FET). The ...

 

Estimation of live fuel moisture content from MODIS images for fire danger assessment in Southern Gran Chaco

  
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing (2016), pp. 1-11, doi:10.1109/jstars.2016.2575366

Abstract

Moisture content of live fuels (LFMC) is one of the main factors determining fuel flammability and, therefore, a key indicator of fire danger. In this study, we modeled the relationship between spectral indices derived from satellite imagery and field estimations of LFMC in the Chaco Serrano subregion; then, we analyzed the relationship between fire danger estimations based on LFMC calculations and fire activity. Empirical LFMC models fitted for grasslands, Chaco Serrano forests, and glossy privet forests may be considered very accurate ...

 

Fire hazard and flammability of European forest types

  
In Post-Fire Management and Restoration of Southern European Forests, Vol. 24 (2012), pp. 79-92, doi:10.1007/978-94-007-2208-8_4

Abstract

This chapter discusses the fire hazard and flammability of the forest types of Europe. It does not present an in-depth treatment of the subject of fire hazard and fuel flammability but after briefly listing and discussing the factors affecting flammability and its relation to fire hazard it focuses on the specifics of the European forest types and on expected changes under a global warming scenario, in an effort to provide support for post-fire management decisions. ...

 

Combining forest structure data and fuel modelling to classify fire hazard in Portugal

  
Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 66, No. 4. (2009), pp. 415-415, doi:10.1051/forest%2f2009013

Abstract

Fire management activities can greatly benefit from the description of wildland fuel to assess fire hazard. [\n] A forest typology developed from the Portuguese National Forest Inventory that combines cover type (the dominant overstorey species) and forest structure defined as a combination of generic stand density (closed or open) and height (low or tall) is translated into fuel models. Fire behaviour simulations that accounted for the fire environment modification induced by stand structure resulted in an objective and quantitative assessment of fire ...

 

More accountability for big-data algorithms

  
Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7621. (21 September 2016), pp. 449-449, doi:10.1038/537449a

Abstract

To avoid bias and improve transparency, algorithm designers must make data sources and profiles public. [Excerpt] [...] Algorithms, from the simplest to the most complex, follow sets of instructions or learn to accomplish a goal. In principle, they could help to make impartial analyses and decisions by reducing human biases and prejudices. But there is growing concern that they risk doing the opposite, and will replicate and exacerbate human failings [...]. And in an era of powerful computers, machine learning and big data, ...

 

Natural hazards monitoring: forest fires, droughts and floods - The example of European pilot projects

  
Surveys in Geophysics, Vol. 21, No. 2-3. (2000), pp. 291-305, doi:10.1023/a%3a1006750412500

Abstract

This paper reviews the subject of natural hazards and the use of existing remote sensing systems in the different phases of disaster management for some specific natural hazards: forest fires, droughts and floods. It centers on the applicability of remote sensing for increasing preparedness, providing early warnings, monitoring the hazards in real time, and assessing the damage so that relief can be provided. Comparison of the information provided by existing systems and that needed for operational use of remote sensing in ...

 

Impacts of natural disasters in agriculture, rangeland and forestry: an overview

  
In Natural Disasters and Extreme Events in Agriculture (2005), pp. 1-22, doi:10.1007/3-540-28307-2_1

Abstract

Natural disasters play a major role in agricultural development and the economic cost associated with all natural disasters has increased 14 fold since the 1950s. Natural disasters are classified into hydro-meteorological and geophysical disasters. Definitions of various types of hydrometeorological disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, forest fires, heatwaves were presented. Evidence available from different parts of the world showed that there is a rising trend in the occurrence of natural disasters from 1993 to 2002. Impacts of droughts, cyclones, floods, ...

 

Biodiversity and ecosystem services: a multilayered relationship

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 27, No. 1. (1 January 2012), pp. 19-26, doi:10.1016/j.tree.2011.08.006

Abstract

The relationship between biodiversity and the rapidly expanding research and policy field of ecosystem services is confused and is damaging efforts to create coherent policy. Using the widely accepted Convention on Biological Diversity definition of biodiversity and work for the UK National Ecosystem Assessment we show that biodiversity has key roles at all levels of the ecosystem service hierarchy: as a regulator of underpinning ecosystem processes, as a final ecosystem service and as a good that is subject to valuation, whether ...

 

Who is accountable?

  
Nature, Vol. 450, No. 7166. (31 October 2007), pp. 1-1, doi:10.1038/450001a

Abstract

How the responsibilities of co-authors for a scientific paper's integrity could be made more explicit. ...

 

Authorship matters

  
Nature Materials, Vol. 7, No. 2. (01 February 2008), pp. 91-91, doi:10.1038/nmat2112

Abstract

Individual contributions should be carefully evaluated when compiling the author list of a scientific paper. ...

 

Does background matter? Disciplinary perspectives on sustainable forest management

  
Biodiversity and Conservation, Vol. 23, No. 14. (2014), pp. 3373-3389, doi:10.1007/s10531-014-0816-1

Abstract

Although sustainable forest management (SFM) has become increasingly popular during recent decades, approaches towards it are still imprecise and lack consistency. Within this “chaos”, scientists are increasingly expected to further develop the concept across disciplinary boundaries, including normative statements relating to the future. However, we assume that disciplinary boundaries in the construction of SFM still exist due to prevalent interests and political intentions within scientific communities. Therefore, our aim is to analyse and explain qualitative differences in the construction of SFM ...

 

Temperate and boreal rainforest relicts of Europe

  
In Temperate and Boreal Rainforests of the World: Ecology and Conservation (2011), pp. 154-180, doi:10.5822/978-1-61091-008-8_6
Keywords: abies-alba   acer-pseudoplatanus   aconitum-sp   alces-alces   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   anemone-trifolia   aquila-chrysaetos   arthonia-leucopellaea   asplenium-scolopendrium   athyrium-filix-femina   balkan-peninsula   betula-pendula   betula-pubescens   biodiversity   bison-bonasus   boreal-forests   buteo-buteo   calluna-vulgaris   canis-lupus   capreolus-capreolus   carduus-personata   central-europe   cervus-elaphus   cervus-nippon   cicerbita-alpine   conservation   cortusa-matthioli   corylus-avellana   dryocopus-martius   dryopteris-carthusiana   dryopteris-dilatata   dryopteris-sp   endangered-species   epimedium-alpinum   euphorbia-austriaca   europe   fagus-sylvatica   felis-silvestris   forest-resources   fragmentation   fraxinus-excelsior   grazing   gymnocarpium-dryopteris   habitat-conservation   hacquetia-epipactis   hotspot   ilex-aquifolium   lagopus-muta   lamium-orvala   larix-eurolepis   lichens   lobaria-amplissima   lobaria-scrobiculata   lunaria-rediviva   lynx-lynx   lyrurus-tetrix   meles-meles   milvus-milvus   norway   omphalodes-verna   picea-abies   picea-sitchensis   pinus-contorta   pleurospermum-austriacum   populus-tremula   prunus-avium   pseudotsuga-menziesii   pyrenula-laevigata   quercus-petraea   quercus-robur   quercus-sp   rainforest   rhododendron-ponticum   rupicapra-rupicapra   salix-caprea   salix-sp   sanicula-europaea   saxifraga-rotundifolia   sorbus-aucuparia   strix-uralensis   sus-scrofa   taxus-baccata   temperate-forests   tetrao-urogallus   thalictrum-aquilegifolium   thelotrema-lepadinum   tilia-cordata   tilia-platyphyllos   ulmus-glabra   vaccinium-myrtillus  

Abstract

European temperate rainforests are disjunctly distributed from ~45° to 69°N latitude, where they are influenced by maritime climates (see figure 6-1). Storms originating in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean (Balkans) provide for mild winters, cool summers, and adequate precipitation to sustain rainforests throughout the year. Due to extensive deforestation, however, today’s European rainforests are mere fragments of primeval rainforests. A reminder of a bygone era when rainforests flourished, they are barely hanging on as contemporary rainforest relicts (see box 6-1). ...

 

Colchic and Hyrcanian forests of the Caucasus: similarities, differences and conservation status

  
Flora Mediterranea, Vol. 25, No. Special Issue. (26 November 2015), doi:10.7320/flmedit25si.185
Keywords: abies-nordmanniana   acer-insigne   acer-velutinum   albizzia-julibrissin   alnus-barbata   alnus-subcordata   ancient-forest   ancient-forest-plant-species   arachne-colchica   betula-litwinowii   betula-medwedewii   biodiversity   buxus-colchicus   buxus-hyrcana   carpinus-caucasica   castanea-sativa   caucasus   colchic-region   comparison   corylus-colchica   danae-racemosa   daphne-alboviana   daphne-pontica   dioscorea-caucasica   diospyros-lotus   ecological-zones   ecosystem-conservation   epigaea-gaultherioides   fagus-orientalis   forest-resources   gleditcia-caspica   hedera-colchica   hedera-pastuchovii   hypericum-androsaemum   hypericum-inodorum   hyrcanian-region   ilex-colchica   ilex-hyrcana   laurocerasus-officinalis   parrotia-persica   philadelphus-caucasicus   picea-orientalis   protected-areas   protection   pterocarya-fraxinifolia   quercus-castaneifolia   quercus-hartwissiana   quercus-imeretina   quercus-macranthera   quercus-pontica   rainforest   rhamnus-imeretina   rhododendron-caucasicum   rhododendron-ponticum   rhododendron-smirnowii   rhododendron-ungernii   ruscus-colchicus   ruscus-hyrcanus   sorbus-aucuparia   sorbus-caucasigena   sorbus-subfusca   species-richness   staphylea-colchica   temperate-forests   vaccinium-arctostaphylos   viburnum-orientale   zelkova-carpinifolia  

Abstract

Along with high degree of vascular plant endemism (more than 25%) the existence of two refugia of the Tertiary flora – Colchic and Hyrcanian – are the most unique features of the Caucasus ecoregion. Likewise, Colchic and Hyrcanian forests are classified as temperate rainforests.There are certain physical-geographical and biological similarities and even more differences between Colchic and Hyrcanian regions, reflected on compositions of flora, types of vegetation zonation, as well as spectrums of vegetation formations. An “individualities” of these two unique nature phenomena definethe necessity of their ...

 

Hyperauthorship: a postmodern perversion or evidence of a structural shift in scholarly communication practices?

  
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 52, No. 7. (2001), pp. 558-569, doi:10.1002/asi.1097

Abstract

Classical assumptions about the nature and ethical entailments of authorship (the standard model) are being challenged by developments in scientific collaboration and multiple authorship. In the biomedical research community, multiple authorship has increased to such an extent that the trustworthiness of the scientific communication system has been called into question. Documented abuses, such as honorific authorship, have serious implications in terms of the acknowledgment of authority, allocation of credit, and assigning of accountability. Within the biomedical world it has been proposed ...

 

Credit where credit is due? Regulation, research integrity and the attribution of authorship in the health sciences

  
Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 70, No. 9. (May 2010), pp. 1458-1465, doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.01.013

Abstract

Despite attempts at clear direction in international, national and journal guidelines, attribution of authorship can be a confusing area for both new and established researchers. As journal articles are valuable intellectual property, authorship can be hotly contested. Individual authors' responsibilities for the integrity of article content have not been well explored. Semi-structured interviews (n = 17) were conducted with staff, student advocates and doctoral candidates working in health research in two universities in Australia. Stratified sampling ensured participants reflected a range of experience ...

 

Responsible authorship: why researchers must forgo honorary authorship

  
Accountability in Research, Vol. 18, No. 2. (9 March 2011), pp. 76-90, doi:10.1080/08989621.2011.557297

Abstract

Although widespread throughout the biomedical sciences, the practice of honorary authorship?the listing of authors who fail to merit inclusion as authors by authorship criteria?has received relatively little sustained attention. Is there something wrong with honorary authorship, or is it only a problem when used in conjunction with other unethical authorship practices like ghostwriting? Numerous sets of authorship guidelines discourage the practice, but its ubiquity throughout biomedicine suggests that there is a need to say more about honorary authorship. Despite its general ...

 

Academic authorship: who, why and in what order?

  
Health Renaissance, Vol. 11, No. 2. (19 June 2013), doi:10.3126/hren.v11i2.8214

Abstract

We are frequently asked by our colleagues and students for advice on authorship for scientific articles. This short paper outlines some of the issues that we have experienced and the advice we usually provide. This editorial follows on from our work on submitting a paper1 and also on writing an academic paper for publication.2 We should like to start by noting that, in our view, there exist two separate, but related issues: (a) authorship and (b) order of authors. The issue of authorship centres on the notion of who can be ...

 

Potential insect vectors of Bursaphelenchus spp. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) in Spanish pine forests

  
In Pine Wilt Disease: A Worldwide Threat to Forest Ecosystems (2008), pp. 221-234, doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-8455-3_19

Abstract

Potential insect vectors of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (PWN) were studied. Pathways of introduction of PWN from Portugal to Europe, through Spain, were determined and traps were located in pine stands sites along the pathways. 19 Cerambycidae, 12 Scolytidae, 12 Buprestidae and 10 Curculionidae species have been found. Trapped insects were examined for the presence of nematodes under their elytra. Nematodes were found on Arhopalus ferus, Spondylis buprestoides, Hylastes ater, Hylurgus lingniperda, Orthotomicus erosus, Pityogenes bidentatus, Tomicus piniperda, Hylobius abietis and Pissodes validirrostris ...

 

LUCAS - Land use and land cover survey

  
In Statistics Explained (2016), 29057

Abstract

The European Union (EU) is composed of a diverse range of landscapes: it is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna and includes some of the most and least densely populated areas of the world. This background article provides information on the Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS), a survey that provides harmonised and comparable statistics on land use and land cover across the whole of the EU’s territory - a toal area of just under 4.5 million square ...

 

The impact of charcoal production on forest degradation: a case study in Tete, Mozambique

  
Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 11, No. 9. (01 September 2016), 094020, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/094020

Abstract

Charcoal production for urban energy consumption is a main driver of forest degradation in sub Saharan Africa. Urban growth projections for the continent suggest that the relevance of this process will increase in the coming decades. Forest degradation associated to charcoal production is difficult to monitor and commonly overlooked and underrepresented in forest cover change and carbon emission estimates. We use a multitemporal dataset of very high-resolution remote sensing images to map kiln locations in a representative study area of tropical ...

 

Evolution: why some groups have more species

  
Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7620. (14 September 2016), pp. 282-282, doi:10.1038/537282c

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Across the tree of life, some groups have many more species than others. To find out why, Joshua Scholl and John Wiens at the University of Arizona in Tucson collated published data on the number of species and their phylogenetic relationships in each group of living organisms. Contrary to some hypotheses, older groups did not have more species than young groups. Instead, the authors found that the balance of speciation and extinction over time, known as the diversification rate, determined ...

 

Diversification rates and species richness across the Tree of Life

  
Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Vol. 283, No. 1838. (14 September 2016), 20161334, doi:10.1098/rspb.2016.1334

Abstract

Species richness varies dramatically among clades across the Tree of Life, by over a million-fold in some cases (e.g. placozoans versus arthropods). Two major explanations for differences in richness among clades are the clade-age hypothesis (i.e. species-rich clades are older) and the diversification-rate hypothesis (i.e. species-rich clades diversify more rapidly, where diversification rate is the net balance of speciation and extinction over time). Here, we examine patterns of variation in diversification rates across the Tree of Life. We address how rates ...

 

Meteorology: air particles boost rain extremes

  
Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7620. (14 September 2016), pp. 282-282, doi:10.1038/537282b

Abstract

[Excerpt] As the climate warms, tiny particles suspended in the atmosphere may have a greater effect than greenhouse gases on increasing the frequency of extreme rain and snowfall. [\n] Greenhouse gases and atmospheric aerosols both drive extreme precipitation, which is expected to increase with climate change. [...] ...

 

Sensitivity of precipitation extremes to radiative forcing of greenhouse gases and aerosols

  
Geophysical Research Letters (2016), doi:10.1002/2016gl070869

Abstract

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols are the two most important anthropogenic forcing agents in the 21st century. The expected declines of anthropogenic aerosols in the 21st century from present-day levels would cause an additional warming of the Earth's climate system, which would aggravate the climate extremes caused by GHG warming. We examine the increased rate of precipitation extremes with global mean surface warming in the 21st century caused by anthropogenic GHGs and aerosols, using an Earth system model ensemble simulation. Similar ...

 

Why scientists must share their research code

  
Nature (13 September 2016), doi:10.1038/nature.2016.20504

Abstract

'Reproducibility editor' Victoria Stodden explains the growing movement to make code and data available to others. [Excerpt] [...] [::What does computational reproducibility mean?] It means that all details of computation — code and data — are made routinely available to others. If I can run your code on your data, then I can understand what you did. We need to expose all the steps that went into any discovery that relies on a computer. [::What’s the scientific value of running the same data with the ...

 

Modeling airborne laser scanning data for the spatial generation of critical forest parameters in fire behavior modeling

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 86, No. 2. (30 July 2003), pp. 177-186, doi:10.1016/s0034-4257(03)00098-1

Abstract

Methods for using airborne laser scanning (also called airborne LIDAR) to retrieve forest parameters that are critical for fire behavior modeling are presented. A model for the automatic extraction of forest information is demonstrated to provide spatial coverage of the study area, making it possible to produce 3-D inputs to improve fire behavior models. [\n] The Toposys I airborne laser system recorded the last return of each footprint (0.30–0.38 m) over a 2000 m by 190 m flight line. Raw data ...

 

Development of a framework for fire risk assessment using remote sensing and geographic information system technologies

  
Ecological Modelling, Vol. 221, No. 1. (10 January 2010), pp. 46-58, doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.11.017

Abstract

Forest fires play a critical role in landscape transformation, vegetation succession, soil degradation and air quality. Improvements in fire risk estimation are vital to reduce the negative impacts of fire, either by lessen burn severity or intensity through fuel management, or by aiding the natural vegetation recovery using post-fire treatments. This paper presents the methods to generate the input variables and the risk integration developed within the Firemap project (funded under the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology) to map wildland ...

 

Human-caused wildfire risk rating for prevention planning in Spain

  
Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 90, No. 2. (February 2009), pp. 1241-1252, doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.07.005

Abstract

This paper identifies human factors associated with high forest fire risk in Spain and analyses the spatial distribution of fire occurrence in the country. The spatial units were 6,066 municipalities of the Spanish peninsular territory and Balearic Islands. The study covered a 13-year series of fire occurrence data. One hundred and eight variables were generated and input to a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) to model different factors related to fire ignition. After exploratory analysis, 29 were selected to build a ...

 

Global fire size distribution is driven by human impact and climate

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 24, No. 1. (January 2015), pp. 77-86, doi:10.1111/geb.12246

Abstract

[Aim] In order to understand fire's impacts on vegetation dynamics, it is crucial that the distribution of fire sizes be known. We approached this distribution using a power-law distribution, which derives from self-organized criticality theory (SOC). We compute the global spatial variation in the power-law exponent and determine the main factors that explain its spatial distribution. [Location] Global, at 2° grid resolution. [Methods] We use satellite-derived MODIS burned-area data (MCD45) to obtain global individual fire size data for 2002–2010, grouped together for each 2° grid. A ...

 

Advances in remote sensing and GIS applications in support of forest fire management

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 23, No. 5. (2014), 603, doi:10.1071/wf14117

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] In recent years, the importance of wildfires as a natural or a human-induced phenomenon has gained recognition not only at local but also at regional and global levels. Improved remote sensing and computational capabilities enable the rapid processing of large image datasets in near-real time. As a result, remote sensing and geographic information systems are becoming common tools for fire monitoring at local, regional and global levels [...]. [\n] Wildland fires, a hot topic of research since the early days of ...

 

Integrating geospatial information into fire risk assessment

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 23, No. 5. (2014), 606, doi:10.1071/wf12052

Abstract

Fire risk assessment should take into account the most relevant components associated to fire occurrence. To estimate when and where the fire will produce undesired effects, we need to model both (a) fire ignition and propagation potential and (b) fire vulnerability. Following these ideas, a comprehensive fire risk assessment system is proposed in this paper, which makes extensive use of geographic information technologies to offer a spatially explicit evaluation of fire risk conditions. The paper first describes the conceptual model, then ...

 

A global review of remote sensing of live fuel moisture content for fire danger assessment: moving towards operational products

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 136 (September 2013), pp. 455-468, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2013.05.029

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We review satellite LFMC products and their operational use for fire assessment. [::] The literature is dominated by statistical and physical model-based methods. [::] Statistical methods are site-specific. [::] The parameterization of physical models is complex. [::] Challenges: quantifying estimation errors and linking LFMC to fire behavior/risk. [Abstract] One of the primary variables affecting ignition and spread of wildfire is fuel moisture content (FMC). Live FMC (LFMC) is responsive to long term climate and plant adaptations to drought, requiring remote sensing for monitoring of spatial and ...

 

The Australian flammability monitoring system

  
In Brisbane 2016: annual conference (2016)

Abstract

Live fuel moisture content (LFMC) is one of the primary variables affecting bushfire flammability. We have developed the first Australia-wide flammability monitoring system for operational prediction of LFMC and flammability using satellite data. [Excerpt: Conclusion and future work] [::] We developed the prototype of the first Australia-wide Flammability Monitoring System for operational prediction of LFMC and flammability using satellite observations. [::] LFMC is not the only variable that is related to fire occurrence, and therefore the importance of other factors (e.g. fire weather and ...

 

The precision problem in conservation and restoration

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution (2016), doi:10.1016/j.tree.2016.08.001

Abstract

Within the varied contexts of environmental policy, conservation of imperilled species populations, and restoration of damaged habitats, an emphasis on idealized optimal conditions has led to increasingly specific targets for management. Overly-precise conservation targets can reduce habitat variability at multiple scales, with unintended consequences for future ecological resilience. We describe this dilemma in the context of endangered species management, stream restoration, and climate-change adaptation. Inappropriate application of conservation targets can be expensive, with marginal conservation benefit. Reduced habitat variability can limit ...

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