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Implementation and achievements of CLC2006

edited by Markus Erhard
Keywords: clc   corroboration   europe   land-cover   validation  


[Excerpt: Executive Summary] Strategic discussions among EEA member countries and the main EU institutions responsible for environmental policy, reporting and assessment have underlined an increasing need for quantitative information on the state of the environment based on timely, quality-assured data, concerning in particular land cover and land use. Based on these requirements EEA has been collaborating since 2006 with the European Commission and the European Space Agency on the implementation of a fast track service on land monitoring as part of the implementation of GMES. [\n] CORINE Land Cover ...


The effects of air pollutants on vegetation and the role of vegetation in reducing atmospheric pollution

In The Impact of Air Pollution on Health, Economy, Environment and Agricultural Sources (26 September 2011), doi:10.5772/17660
edited by Mohamed Khallaf


[Excerpt: Introduction] The main air pollutants are represented by gases forms, particles in suspension, different ionizing radiation and noise. [\n] gases forms are: oxidized and reduced forms of carbon (CO2, CO, CH4), of nitrogen (NO2, NO, N2O4, NH3, NH4+), SO2, O3, C6H6 vapours, Hg, volatile phenols, Cl2, etc. [\n] The particulate forms are: PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter, heavy metals with toxic effect (Pb, Ni, Cd, As), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs, etc. [\n] Atmospheric pollutants have a negative effect on the plants; they can ...


Managing alpine forests in a changing climate

In Management Strategies to Adapt Alpine Space Forests to Climate Change Risks (28 August 2013), doi:10.5772/56272
edited by Gillian Cerbu


[Excerpt: Introduction] There is mounting evidence that Alpine forest ecosystems will not be able to fully absorb the changes in site factors associated with climate change, such as higher temperatures, more intensive drought stress and associated biotic impacts since these changes exceed the adaptive capacity of the trees. The projected changes in temperature by 2.2 to 5.1 K from 1980 to 1999 to 2080 to 2099, for the A1B scenario in southern Europe [1], correspond to an altitudinal shift of 300 to ...

Visual summary


Robots and free software

In A World with Robots, Vol. 84 (2017), pp. 63-76, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46667-5_5


This article examines whether the arguments put forward by Free Software advocates in the context of computers also apply for robots. It summarises their key arguments and explores whether or not they appear transferable to robot cases. Doing so, it comes to the conclusion that, in the majority of cases, the reasons that may make the use of Free Software over proprietary software preferable in other technologies, equally apply in the case of robots. ...


Individuals and the variation needed for high species diversity in forest trees

Science, Vol. 327, No. 5969. (25 February 2010), pp. 1129-1132, doi:10.1126/science.1183506


In the past, explanations for high species diversity have been sought at the species level. Theory shows that coexistence requires substantial differences between species, but species-level data rarely provide evidence for such differences. Using data from forests in the southeastern United States, I show here that variation evident at the individual level provides for coexistence of large numbers of competitors. Variation among individuals within populations allows species to differ in their distributions of responses to the environment, despite the fact that ...


Resolving the biodiversity paradox

Ecology Letters, Vol. 10, No. 8. (August 2007), pp. 647-659, doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01041.x


The paradox of biodiversity involves three elements, (i) mathematical models predict that species must differ in specific ways in order to coexist as stable ecological communities, (ii) such differences are difficult to identify, yet (iii) there is widespread evidence of stability in natural communities. Debate has centred on two views. The first explanation involves tradeoffs along a small number of axes, including ‘colonization-competition’, resource competition (light, water, nitrogen for plants, including the ‘successional niche’), and life history (e.g. high-light growth vs. ...


Competition theory, evolution, and the concept of an ecological niche

Acta Biotheoretica, Vol. 31, No. 3. (1982), pp. 165-179, doi:10.1007/bf01857239


This article examines some of the main tenets of competition theory in light of the theory of evolution and the concept of an ecological niche. The principle of competitive exclusion and the related assumption that communities exist at competitive equilibrium - fundamental parts of many competition theories and models - may be violated if non-equilibrium conditions exist in natural communities or are incorporated into competition models. Furthermore, these two basic tenets of competition theory are not compatible with the theory of ...


Ecology and the ratchet of events: climate variability, niche dimensions, and species distributions

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, No. Supplement 2. (17 November 2009), pp. 19685-19692, doi:10.1073/pnas.0901644106


Climate change in the coming centuries will be characterized by interannual, decadal, and multidecadal fluctuations superimposed on anthropogenic trends. Predicting ecological and biogeographic responses to these changes constitutes an immense challenge for ecologists. Perspectives from climatic and ecological history indicate that responses will be laden with contingencies, resulting from episodic climatic events interacting with demographic and colonization events. This effect is compounded by the dependency of environmental sensitivity upon life-stage for many species. Climate variables often used in empirical niche models ...


Multiple dimensions of climate change and their implications for biodiversity

Science, Vol. 344, No. 6183. (01 May 2014), pp. 1247579-1247579, doi:10.1126/science.1247579


[Structured Abstract] [::Background] Changes in Earth’s climate over time can be measured in many ways. The different metrics available represent alternative dimensions of climate change, each with distinct implications for biodiversity conservation and other sectors. However, this diversity is rarely recognized. At any given locality, average temperature or precipitation can increase or decrease, extreme values can become more intense or frequent, and the timing of specific climatic events can shift. At the same time, climatic conditions are redistributed at broader spatial extents. Across ...


Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises

Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 5, No. 9. (November 2007), pp. 475-482, doi:10.1890/070037


No-analog communities (communities that are compositionally unlike any found today) occurred frequently in the past and will develop in the greenhouse world of the future. The well documented no-analog plant communities of late-glacial North America are closely linked to “novel” climates also lacking modern analogs, characterized by high seasonality of temperature. In climate simulations for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 and B1 emission scenarios, novel climates arise by 2100 AD, primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. These future novel ...


Do hypervolumes have holes?

The American Naturalist, Vol. 187, No. 4. (15 February 2016), pp. E93-E105, doi:10.1086/685444


Hypervolumes are used widely to conceptualize niches and trait distributions for both species and communities. Some hypervolumes are expected to be convex, with boundaries defined by only upper and lower limits (e.g., fundamental niches), while others are expected to be maximal, with boundaries defined by the limits of available space (e.g., potential niches). However, observed hypervolumes (e.g., realized niches) could also have holes, defined as unoccupied hyperspace representing deviations from these expectations that may indicate unconsidered ecological or evolutionary processes. Detecting ...


A cautionary note on the use of hypervolume kernel density estimators in ecological niche modelling

Global Ecology and Biogeography (August 2016), doi:10.1111/geb.12492


Blonder et al. (2014, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23, 595–609) introduced a new multivariate kernel density estimation (KDE) method to infer Hutchinsonian hypervolumes in the modelling of ecological niches. The authors argued that their KDE method matches or outperforms several methods for estimating hypervolume geometries and for conducting species distribution modelling. Further clarification, however, is appropriate with respect to the assumptions and limitations of KDE as a method for species distribution modelling. Using virtual species and controlled environmental scenarios, we show ...


No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide

Nature Communications, Vol. 8 (15 February 2017), 14435, doi:10.1038/ncomms14435


Although research on human-mediated exchanges of species has substantially intensified during the last centuries, we know surprisingly little about temporal dynamics of alien species accumulations across regions and taxa. Using a novel database of 45,813 first records of 16,926 established alien species, we show that the annual rate of first records worldwide has increased during the last 200 years, with 37% of all first records reported most recently (1970–2014). Inter-continental and inter-taxonomic variation can be largely attributed to the diaspora of ...


Is robustness really robust? How different definitions of robustness impact decision-making under climate change

Climatic Change, Vol. 135, No. 3-4. (2016), pp. 409-424, doi:10.1007/s10584-015-1586-9


Robust decision-making is being increasingly used to support environmental resources decisions and policy analysis under changing climate and society. In this context, a robust decision is a decision that is as much as possible insensitive to a large degree of uncertainty and ensures certain performance across multiple plausible futures. Yet, the concept of robustness is neither unique nor static. Multiple robustness metrics, such as maximin, optimism-pessimism, max regret, have been proposed in the literature, reflecting diverse optimistic/pessimistic attitudes by the decision ...


Strengthening protected areas for biodiversity and ecosystem services in China

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 7. (14 February 2017), pp. 1601-1606, doi:10.1073/pnas.1620503114


[Significance] Following severe environmental degradation from rapid economic development, China is now advancing policies to secure biodiversity and ecosystem services. We report the first nationwide assessment, showing that protected areas (PAs) are not well delineated to protect either biodiversity or key ecosystem services. This serious deficiency exists in many countries. We propose creating a national park system in China to help guide development along a path of green growth, improving the well-being of both people and nature. This involves establishing new, strictly ...


Multispecies coalescent delimits structure, not species

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 7. (14 February 2017), pp. 1607-1612, doi:10.1073/pnas.1607921114


[Significance] Despite its widespread application to the species delimitation problem, our study demonstrates that what the multispecies coalescent actually delimits is structure. The current implementations of species delimitation under the multispecies coalescent do not provide any way for distinguishing between structure due to population-level processes and that due to species boundaries. The overinflation of species due to the misidentification of general genetic structure for species boundaries has profound implications for our understanding of the generation and dynamics of biodiversity, because any ecological ...


Spatial vegetation patterns and imminent desertification in Mediterranean arid ecosystems

Nature, Vol. 449, No. 7159. (13 September 2007), pp. 213-217, doi:10.1038/nature06111


Humans and climate affect ecosystems and their services1, which may involve continuous and discontinuous transitions from one stable state to another2. Discontinuous transitions are abrupt, irreversible and among the most catastrophic changes of ecosystems identified1. For terrestrial ecosystems, it has been hypothesized that vegetation patchiness could be used as a signature of imminent transitions3, 4. Here, we analyse how vegetation patchiness changes in arid ecosystems with different grazing pressures, using both field data and a modelling approach. In the modelling approach, ...


A data citation roadmap for scientific publishers

bioRxiv (19 January 2017), 100784, doi:10.1101/100784


This article presents a practical roadmap for scholarly publishers to implement data citation in accordance with the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles (JDDCP) [1], a synopsis and harmonization of the recommendations of major science policy bodies. It was developed by the Publishers Early Adopters Expert Group as part of the Data Citation Implementation Pilot (DCIP) project, an initiative of and the NIH BioCADDIE program. The structure of the roadmap presented here follows the “life of a paper” workflow and includes the categories Pre-submission, Submission, Production, ...


A review of the combination among global change factors in forests, shrublands and pastures of the Mediterranean Region: beyond drought effects

Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 148 (January 2017), pp. 42-54, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.11.012


[Highlights] [::] Different global change factors combine causing unprecedented ecological effects. [::] Much more complex interactions arise when combinations occur together. [::] Drought should be considered when designing and applying management policies. [::] Conserving Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems is a collective effort. [Abstract] Climate change, alteration of atmospheric composition, land abandonment in some areas and land use intensification in others, wildfires and biological invasions threaten forests, shrublands and pastures all over the world. However, the impacts of the combinations between global change factors are not well understood despite ...


Forest resilience and tipping points at different spatio-temporal scales: approaches and challenges

Journal of Ecology, Vol. 103, No. 1. (January 2015), pp. 5-15, doi:10.1111/1365-2745.12337


[::] Anthropogenic global change compromises forest resilience, with profound impacts to ecosystem functions and services. This synthesis paper reflects on the current understanding of forest resilience and potential tipping points under environmental change and explores challenges to assessing responses using experiments, observations and models. [::] Forests are changing over a wide range of spatio-temporal scales, but it is often unclear whether these changes reduce resilience or represent a tipping point. Tipping points may arise from interactions across scales, as processes such as ...


Viewing forests through the lens of complex systems science

Ecosphere, Vol. 5, No. 1. (January 2014), art1, doi:10.1890/es13-00182.1


Complex systems science provides a transdisciplinary framework to study systems characterized by (1) heterogeneity, (2) hierarchy, (3) self-organization, (4) openness, (5) adaptation, (6) memory, (7) non-linearity, and (8) uncertainty. Complex systems thinking has inspired both theory and applied strategies for improving ecosystem resilience and adaptability, but applications in forest ecology and management are just beginning to emerge. We review the properties of complex systems using four well-studied forest biomes (temperate, boreal, tropical and Mediterranean) as examples. The lens of complex systems ...


From management to stewardship: viewing forests as complex adaptive systems in an uncertain world

Conservation Letters, Vol. 8, No. 5. (September 2015), pp. 368-377, doi:10.1111/conl.12156


The world's forests and forestry sector are facing unprecedented biological, political, social, and climatic challenges. The development of appropriate, novel forest management and restoration approaches that adequately consider uncertainty and adaptability are hampered by a continuing focus on production of a few goods or objectives, strong control of forest structure and composition, and most importantly the absence of a global scientific framework and long-term vision. Ecosystem-based approaches represent a step in the right direction, but are limited in their ability to ...


Evidence of divergent selection for drought and cold tolerance at landscape and local scales in Abies alba Mill. in the French Mediterranean Alps

Molecular Ecology, Vol. 25, No. 3. (February 2016), pp. 776-794, doi:10.1111/mec.13516


Understanding local adaptation in forest trees is currently a key research and societal priority. Geographically and ecologically marginal populations provide ideal case studies, because environmental stress along with reduced gene flow can facilitate the establishment of locally adapted populations. We sampled European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) trees in the French Mediterranean Alps, along the margin of its distribution range, from pairs of high- and low-elevation plots on four different mountains situated along a 170-km east–west transect. The analysis of 267 ...


Environmental versus geographical determinants of genetic structure in two subalpine conifers

New Phytologist, Vol. 201, No. 1. (January 2014), pp. 180-192, doi:10.1111/nph.12476


[::] Alpine ecosystems are facing rapid human-induced environmental changes, and so more knowledge about tree adaptive potential is needed. This study investigated the relative role of isolation by distance (IBD) versus isolation by adaptation (IBA) in explaining population genetic structure in Abies alba and Larix decidua, based on 231 and 233 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) sampled across 36 and 22 natural populations, respectively, in the Alps and Apennines. [::] Genetic structure was investigated for both geographical and environmental groups, using analysis of ...


Communication: science censorship is a global issue

Nature, Vol. 542, No. 7640. (08 February 2017), pp. 165-165, doi:10.1038/542165b


[Excerpt] [...] Regrettably, suppression of public scientific information is already the norm, or is being attempted, in many countries [...]. We fear that such gagging orders could encourage senior bureaucrats to use funding as a tool with which to rein in academic freedoms. [...] The response of scientists to this type of coercion has been to share scientific information widely and openly using such legal means as social media to defend facts and transparency [...] ...


Deadly new wheat disease threatens Europe’s crops

Nature, Vol. 542, No. 7640. (2 February 2017), pp. 145-146, doi:10.1038/nature.2017.21424


Researchers caution that stem rust may have returned to world’s largest wheat-producing region. [Excerpt] [...] Last year, the stem rust destroyed tens of thousands of hectares of crops in Sicily. What’s particularly troubling, the researchers say, is that GRRC (Global Rust Reference Center) tests suggest the pathogen can infect dozens of laboratory-grown strains of wheat, including hardy varieties that are usually highly resistant to disease. The team is now studying whether commercial crops are just as susceptible. [\n] Adding further concern, the centres ...


Long-term variability of Abies alba in NW Romania: implications for its conservation management

Diversity and Distributions, Vol. 14, No. 6. (November 2008), pp. 1004-1017, doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2008.00514.x


[Aim] Although Abies alba is not yet prioritized for conservation in many European countries, its importance is acknowledged under the EU Directive on the marketing for forest reproductive material. The Apuseni National Park contains one of the largest areas of remnant native A. alba in central eastern Europe. Here, we examine the antiquity of the present A. alba communities in the forests of NW Romania and the drivers behind their variability over the last 6000 years leading to current distribution ...


Fine-grain modeling of species’ response to climate change: holdouts, stepping-stones, and microrefugia

Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 29, No. 7. (July 2014), pp. 390-397, doi:10.1016/j.tree.2014.04.006


[Highlights] [::] Understanding of microclimates may revolutionize climate change biology. [::] Microrefugia will be rare under future climate change. [::] Conservation strategies should focus on managing holdouts and stepping stones. [Abstract] Microclimates have played a critical role in past species range shifts, suggesting that they could be important in biological response to future change. Terms are needed to discuss these future effects. We propose that populations occupying microclimates be referred to as holdouts, stepping stones and microrefugia. A holdout is a population that persists in a ...


Niches and distributional areas: concepts, methods, and assumptions

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, No. Supplement 2. (17 November 2009), pp. 19644-19650, doi:10.1073/pnas.0901637106


Estimating actual and potential areas of distribution of species via ecological niche modeling has become a very active field of research, yet important conceptual issues in this field remain confused. We argue that conceptual clarity is enhanced by adopting restricted definitions of “niche” that enable operational definitions of basic concepts like fundamental, potential, and realized niches and potential and actual distributional areas. We apply these definitions to the question of niche conservatism, addressing what it is that is conserved and showing ...


What does ecological modelling model? A proposed classification of ecological niche models based on their underlying methods

Ecological Modelling, Vol. 222, No. 8. (01 April 2011), pp. 1343-1346, doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.01.018


Species distribution model is the term most frequently used in ecological modelling, but other authors used instead predictive habitat distribution model or species-habitat models. A consensual ecological modelling terminology that avoids misunderstandings and takes into account the ecological niche theory does not exist at present. Moreover, different studies differ in the type of niche that is represented by similar distribution models. I propose to use as standard ecological modelling terminology the terms “ecological niche”, “potential niche”, “realized niche” models (for modelling ...


The ability of climate envelope models to predict the effect of climate change on species distributions

Global Change Biology, Vol. 12, No. 12. (1 December 2006), pp. 2272-2281, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01256.x


Climate envelope models (CEMs) have been used to predict the distribution of species under current, past, and future climatic conditions by inferring a species' environmental requirements from localities where it is currently known to occur. CEMs can be evaluated for their ability to predict current species distributions but it is unclear whether models that are successful in predicting current distributions are equally successful in predicting distributions under different climates (i.e. different regions or time periods). We evaluated the ability of CEMs ...


Comparing and selecting spatial predictors using local criteria

Vol. 2013 (2013), 21-13


Remote sensing technology for the study of Earth and its environment has led to “Big Data” that, paradoxically, have global extent but may be spatially sparse. Furthermore, the variability in the measurement error and the latent process error may not fit conveniently into the Gaussian linear paradigm. In this paper, we consider the problem of selecting a predictor from a finite collection of spatial predictors of a spatial random process defined on D, a subset of d-dimensional Euclidean space. Critically, we ...


Local spatial-predictor selection

Vol. 2013 (2013), 09-13


Consider the problem of spatial prediction of a random process from a spatial dataset. Global spatial-predictor selection provides a way to choose a single spatial predictor from a number of competing predictors. Instead, we consider local spatial-predictor selection at each spatial location in the domain of interest. This results in a hybrid predictor that could be considered global, since it takes the form of a combination of local predictors; we call this the locally selected spatial predictor. We pursue this idea ...


Data-driven predictions in the science of science

Science, Vol. 355, No. 6324. (03 February 2017), pp. 477-480, doi:10.1126/science.aal4217


The desire to predict discoveries—to have some idea, in advance, of what will be discovered, by whom, when, and where—pervades nearly all aspects of modern science, from individual scientists to publishers, from funding agencies to hiring committees. In this Essay, we survey the emerging and interdisciplinary field of the “science of science” and what it teaches us about the predictability of scientific discovery. We then discuss future opportunities for improving predictions derived from the science of science and its potential impact, ...


Impacts of temperature extremes

In Report of Workshop on the Social and Economic Impacts of Weather (1997)


Extremes of heat and cold have a broad and far-reaching set of impacts on the nation. These include significant loss of life and illness, economic costs in transportation, agriculture, production, energy and infrastructure. The 1976 - 1977 winter freeze and drought is estimated to have cost $36.6 billion in 1980 dollars. In 1980 the nation saw a devastating heat wave and drought that claimed at least 1700 lives and had estimated economic costs $15 - $19 billion in 1980 dollars. While ...


Climate change, climate variability and transportation

Procedia Environmental Sciences, Vol. 1 (2010), pp. 130-145, doi:10.1016/j.proenv.2010.09.010


The contribution of the transport systems, including road, air and sea, are making to climate change through the emission of greenhouse (GHG) gases, and new technologies and programmes of action to mitigate their impact on climate is reviewed. The actitivites of the transport systems in most countries are sensitive to a range of weather extremes, including those related to precipitation, thunderstorms, temperature, winds, visibility and sea level. The impact of climate, climate variability and climate change, in particular the impact of ...


Long-term changes in extreme air pollution meteorology and the implications for air quality

Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, No. 23792. (2016)


Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air ...


Ecological responses to recent climate change

Nature, Vol. 416 (2002), pp. 389-395, doi:10.1038/416389a


There is now ample evidence of the ecological impacts of recent climate change, from polar terrestrial to tropical marine environments. The responses of both flora and fauna span an array of ecosystems and organizational hierarchies, from the species to the community levels. Despite continued uncertainty as to community and ecosystem trajectories under global change, our review exposes a coherent pattern of ecological change across systems. Although we are only at an early stage in the projected trends of global warming, ecological ...


Simulating the impact of extreme heat and frost events on wheat crop production: a review

Field Crops research, Vol. 171 (2015), pp. 109-119, doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2014.11.010
Keywords: crop-yield   extreme-events   frost   heat-shock  


Extreme weather events (frost and heat shock), already a significant challenge for grain producers, are predicted to increase under future climate scenarios. This paper reviews the current knowledge on the impacts of extreme heat (heat shock) and frost on crop production and how these impacts are incorporated into contemporary process-based crop models. Heat shock and frost result in a range of physiological impacts on wheat. Based on the literature we conclude that the greatest impacts on production from frost are associated ...


Mediterranean habitat loss under future climate conditions: assessing impacts on the Natura 2000 protected area network

Applied Geography, Vol. 75 (2016), pp. 83-92, doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2016.08.003


[Highlights] [::] The Mediterranean climate domain is projected to loss 11–25% of its current extent. [::] Projected losses of the Mediterranean climate are due to shifts of the arid domain. [::] The Mediterranean domain is projected to shift by 53–121% of its current size. [::] These changes are projected to affect 15–23% of the Mediterranean Natura 2000 sites. [Abstract] The Mediterranean basin is a global hotspot of biological diversity and the most rich biodiversity region in Europe. Nevertheless, climate-driven habitat loss is one of the most serious ...


Resilience as a universal criterion of health

Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 95, No. 3. (1 February 2015), pp. 455-465, doi:10.1002/jsfa.6539


To promote and maintain health in agricultural and food systems, appropriate criteria are needed for the description and assessment of the health of soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems. Here we identify the concept of resilience as a universally applicable and fundamentally important criterion of health in all relevant areas of agriculture. We discuss definitions of resilience for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems, and explore ways in which resilience can be applied as a criterion of health in different agricultural ...


Frost protection: fundamentals, practice and economics

Vol. 10 (2005)


This book describes the physics and biology of frost occurrence and damage, passive and active protection methods and how to access the cost-effectiveness of active protection techniques. Night-time energy balanceis used to demonstrate how protection methods are used to reduce the likelihood of frost damage.Simple methods and programs are provided to help predict temperature trends and to help determine the timing for active methods. Plant physiology related to freeze damage and critical damage temperatures for a wide range of crops and ...


The ecological and evolutionary significance of frost in the context of climate change

Ecology Letters, Vol. 3, No. 5. (September 2000), pp. 457-463, doi:10.1046/j.1461-0248.2000.00165.x
Keywords: climate-change   frost-damage  


The effects that below-freezing temperature (frost) can have at times of year when it is unusual are an interesting ecological phenomenon that has received little attention. The physiological consequence of formation of ice crystals in plant tissue is often death of the plants, or at least of sensitive parts that can include flower buds, ovaries, and leaves. The loss of potential for sexual reproduction can have long-lasting effects on the demography of annuals and long-lived perennials, because the short-term negative effects ...


Temperature extremes: effect on plant growth and development

Weather and Climate Extremes, Vol. 10, Part A (2015), pp. 4-10, doi:10.1016/j.wace.2015.08.001


Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Warmer temperatures expected with climate change and the potential for more extreme temperature events will impact plant productivity. Pollination is one of the most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes across all species and during this developmental stage temperature extremes would greatly affect production. Few adaptation strategies are available to cope with temperature extremes at this developmental stage other than to select for plants which shed pollen during the cooler ...


Distinct effects of climate warming on populations of silver fir (Abies alba) across Europe

Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 42, No. 6. (June 2015), pp. 1150-1162, doi:10.1111/jbi.12512


[Aim] Climate change is expected to modify growth trends of forests around the world. However, this modification may vary in strength and intensity across a species' biogeographical range. Here, we study European populations of silver fir (Abies alba) across its southern distribution limits in Spain, Italy and Romania. We hypothesized that growth trends of silver fir will differ across its distribution range, with a marked decline in growth in drought-prone regions near the species' southernmost biogeographical limits. [Location] Europe (Spain, Italy, Romania). [Methods] We collected tree-ring ...


Abies alba Mill.

In Euro+Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (2014)


[Excerpt] [\n] Name: Abies alba Mill. [\n] Nomencl. ref.: Gard. Dict., ed. 8: Abies No. 1. 1768 [\n] Rank: Species [\n] [...] [\n] Replaced synonym: Pinus picea L. [\n] Homotypic synonyms: Abies nobilis A. Dietr., nom. illeg. Abies pectinata DC., nom. illeg. Pinus pectinata Lam., nom. illeg. Pinus picea L. [\n] Heterotypic synonyms: Abies pardei Gaussen Abies alba subsp. apennina Brullo & al. [\n] [...] ...


Terrestrial ecosystems, soil and forests

In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 153-182, doi:10.2800/534806


[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] Observed climate change has had many impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, such as changes in soil conditions, advances in phenological stages, altitudinal and latitudinal migration of plant and animal species (generally northwards and upwards), and changes in species interactions and species composition in communities, including local extinctions. [::] The relative importance of climate change as a major driver of biodiversity and ecosystem change is projected to increase further in the future. In addition to climate change, human efforts to mitigate and adapt to ...


  1. Alkemade, R., Bakkenes, M., Eickhout, B., 2011. Towards a general relationship between climate change and biodiversity: An example for plant species in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 11, 143–150. doi: 10.1007/s10113-010-0161-1 .
  2. Allen, C. D., Macalady, A. K., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Kitzberger, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D. D., Hogg, E. H. (Ted), Gonzalez, P., Fensham, R., Zhang, Z., Castro, J., Demidova, N., Lim, J.-H., Allard, G., Running, S. W., Semerci, A.,

Executive summary

In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 12-30, doi:10.2800/534806


[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy precipitation ...


  1. Ciscar, J.-C., Feyen, L., Soria, A., Lavalle, C., Raes, F., Perry, M., Nemry, F., Demirel, H., Rozsai, M., Dosio, A., Donatelli, M., Srivastava, A. K., Fumagalli, D., Niemeyer, S., Shrestha, S., Ciaian, P., Himics, M., Van Doorslaer, B., Barrios, S., Ibáñez, N., Forzieri, G., Rojas, R., Bianchi, A., Dowling, P., Camia, A., Libertà, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Barredo, J. I., Paci, D., Pycroft, J., Saveyn, B., Van Regemorter, D., Revesz, T., Vandyck, T.,

Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report

Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), doi:10.2800/534806


[Excerpt: Executive summary] Key messages [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy ...


Bash reference manual: reference documentation for Bash edition 4.4, for Bash version 4.4



[Excerpt: Introduction] [::What is Bash?] Bash is the shell, or command language interpreter, for the GNU operating system. The name is an acronym for the ‘Bourne-Again SHell’, a pun on Stephen Bourne, the author of the direct ancestor of the current Unix shell sh, which appeared in the Seventh Edition Bell Labs Research version of Unix. [\n] Bash is largely compatible with sh and incorporates useful features from the Korn shell ksh and the C shell csh. It is intended to be a ...

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